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Grandma's Place A Natural Learning Center

Grandma's Place of Natural Learning Center

Is The Best Place for Learning


Insects lesson

Posted on September 2, 2014 at 1:14 AM Comments comments (40)
Grandma is giving you a lesson for Insects from Book (57). There is something I want parents to understand. While you are starting your children with a new year of lessons, the public schools are having to test their children to see what level of learning they are at during this time. That gives you one advantage.

The Unit on Insects is as follows:

                                    "Bub Bonanza by Mary Ellen Switzer

Turn your (children) into excited young entomologists with this motivating array of insect activities. (Grandma has one book that invites children to belong to what they call a bug club, there is also in another what they call a plant club. At the end of this insect unit in book (57) are awards for insect collecting and doing. Take advantage of awards any time you can because kids really love them as much as they love little stickers.) They will be "buzzing" with excitement as they plan an insect trivia game, use "Bug-a-Rama Drama" script starters to create plays, and work on the Bug Bonanza activity page. (Another important activity for children to do is collect all kinds of bugs, spiders, butterflies, flies, ants, etc.; This time of year they are abundant because they have had all summer to develop. It is a great time to do some fishing and hunt for big worms after a rain.Save insects in plastic cover with netted covers or jars for a short time and then released.)

The Bug Jar Trivia Game
Send your (children) on an insect "trivia hunt" to help make a (family) trivia game. They may use encyclopedias and other reference books to research their information.
Divide your class into small teams and ask each group to write questions (with answers) on 3" x 5" cards on their assigned subject. Suggested categories include ants, butterflies, bees, crickets, grasshoppers, flies, and beetles. Have a brainstorming session with your (family and friends) to add more to the list.
Place the completed trivia question cards in a large glass jar labeled "The Bug Jar," and play a round or two during those extra minutes of the day.
To further extend this activity, trivia teams can write mini reports on their assigned insects to be presented to the (family and friends). Suggestions include making poster reports (with pictures and facts), creating a television game show or news program that features insects facts, and an imaginary interview with an entomologist.

Fabulous Fables
It's fable time! Read students some of Aesop's delightful fables that feature insect characters. Suggestions are "The Grasshopper and the Ant," "The Ant and the Dove," and "The Fox and the Cicada." Next have the children write and illustrate their own fables using insects as main characters.
Celebrate at the end of this project by having an "Aesop's Fable Party." Have your children read their fables to the class. Serve animal cookies, since so many of Aesop's characters were animals!

Mother Goose Fun
Read the familiar "Little Miss Muffet" Mother Goose rhyme to your (children). Ask the (children) to create a comic strip about the rhyme from the spider's point of view. (This is a good introductory unit to Mother Goose but Grandma usually likes to use it in the month of May because of everything starting with the letter M for May. However, Grandma likes to use the story of the Moose eating a cookie and the Mouse eating something else Grandma can't remember because of the mice at Christmas time, cookies for Halloween, forest stories in the fall because of the harvests and changing of the trees. They all seem to fit that way for Grandma thought of learning. You have to plan things comfortably for yourselves. If you did cover the Mother Goose rhymes in the spring or for last year, this definitely fills the position as a review and with the introduction of comics as well as the restart of the newspaper.)

Invention Fun
Be an inventor! Create a new state-of-the-art and farm. Label the parts of your new ant farm. Draw your design on another sheet of paper. Tell the world about your invention. Write an advertisement about the ant farm. (Use another insect if you wish.)

Let's Write a Story
Write a story about a bug. Here are some story starter ideas:
Hello, my name is Gary Grasshopper. My life as a grasshopper is very exciting! Let me tell you about one of my days...
One warm summer day, a curious ant named Andy decided to visit a picnic. It turned into an adventure that he would never forget! here's what happened...

Bug-a-Rama Drama
Delight your (children) with these motivating script-writing activities. ...give each ...a script starter. Ask create a script, practice it, and then share their skits with (you and/or others).

Amazing Insects
Setting: television newsroom
Characters: Announcer and any number of reporters
Script-Starter: Announcer: "Welcome to our program Amazing Insects. Our reporters are here today with some interesting information on insects. Here's our first reporter with some great information." (Reporters 1, 2, 3, etc., give their reports on various insects.) (Puppets can be use or dolls in place of other reporters only your child or children are do the talking. )

The Unhappy Ladybug
Setting: grassy meadow
Characters: Laura Ladybug, Buzzy Bee, Cassie Cricket, Andy Ant, Bernie Butterfly, and any number of insect characters
Plot: Laura Ladybug sits sadly under a mushroom. It's her birthday today, and all her friends have forgotten. Write a script telling how her friends come to the rescue to make it a happy birthday she'll never forget.

The Case of the Missing Caterpillar
Setting: office of Sam E. Spider, Detective
Characters: Detective Sam E Spider, his helper Florence Fly, C. H. Caterpillar, Charlie Butterfly, and any number of insect suspects
Plot: Detective Sam E. Spider needs your help. C.H. Caterpillar has been missing for two days, and everyone is worried. Write a script telling what happened to C.H.

Fred E. Firefly Saves the Day
Setting: grassy field
Characters: Fred E. Firefly, Betty Butterfly, and any number of insect characters
Plot:One rainy day a Monarch butterfly named Betty got separated from her family. They searched all day with the help of their insect friends but couldn't find Betty anywhere. It was getting dark--what could they do now? Write a script about how Fred E. Firefly comes to their aid.

Insect Book Nook
Dorros, Arthur, Ant Cities, New York: Harper & Row, 1987
Johnson, Sylvia Water Insects. Minneapolis, Lerner Publications Co., 1989
Mound, Laurence. Insect Eyewitness Books, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990
Parker, Nancy Winslow, and Wright, Joan Richards. Bugs. New York: Greenwillow Books, 1987.
Parker, Steve. Insects Eyewitness Explorers. New York: Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1992.
Porter, Keith. Discovering Crickets and Grasshoppers. New York: The Bookwright Press, 1986.
---. Discovering Butterflies and Moths. New York: Gloucester Press, 1987.
Petty, Kate. Bees and Wasps. New York: Gloucester Press, 1987.
Pringle, Laurence. The Golden Book of Insects and Spiders. Racine, Wisconsin: Western Publishing Co., 1990.
Still, John. Amazing Beetles Eyewitness Juniors. New York: Alfred A. Knopt, 1991.
Watts, Barrie. Keeping Minibeasts: Ladybugs. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

                                                           Bug Bonanza Trivia

Attention all Junior entomologists! Grab your pencils and test your knowledge of the insect world.

_________________________1.   Name the three parts of an insect.

_________________________2.   How many legs does an insect have?

_________________________3.   The legs and wings are attached to what part of the insect?

_________________________4.   Beware! This insect "attacks"  wood.

_________________________5.   True or false. Insects live long lives.

_________________________6.   What do ladybugs like to eat?

_________________________7.    Name the insect that looks like a twig.

_________________________8.    How many legs does a spider have?

_________________________9.    Are insects cold-blooded animals?

________________________10.   What is the hard outer covering of an insect called?

________________________11.   What is the larva of a butterfly called?

________________________12.   Watch out! These bugs give off a bad odor when disturbed.

________________________13.   What insects are sometimes called "armored tanks" of the bug
________________________14.   Ants live in groups called ____________________________.

________________________15.   True or False. There are over a million species of insects.

________________________16.   Name the heaviest insect.

________________________17.   Are insects vertebrates or invertebrates?

________________________18.   Bees make honey from _____________________________.

________________________19.   These beetles can shoot a hot liquid from their abdomens.

________________________20. What is the longest insect?

                                           Bug Bonanza Activity Sheet

Attention kids! Get your paper, pencils, and crayons ready and let's begin! We hope you enjoy the activities below__ all about insects.

  1. What is your favorite insect? Tell why.
  2. Draw and label the parts of an insect. Remember the three body parts--head, thorax, and abdomen. Then add six legs, antennae, and wings.
  3. Make a list of all the ways insects can help us.
  4. Extra! Extra! Read all about it! Your trip to the tropical rain forest was a big success! You have discovered a new insect. Write a newspaper article to tell the world about your discovery. Remember to include the five Ws: Who? What? Where? When? and Why? Think of a catchy headline for your story.
  5. Design a bookmark for your favorite insect book character.
  6. Make a list of all the insects you can think of. Make a game, such as a word scramble list or word search. You may also use words pertaining to insects, such as body parts.
  7. Be a reporter! Create a one-page newspaper called "The Grasshopper Gazette." Write news articles and stories about grasshoppers. Include pictures with your articles or stories. Use an encyclopedia or reference book to find out more about grasshoppers.
  8. Write a riddle about any insect. You should have at least three clues written in complete sentences. Try to stump a friend!
  9. How many words can you make using the letters in "praying mantis"?
  10. Be a butterfly detective. Look up information about butterflies in a reference book. Cut out a big shape and include at least one picture in your report.

Circle (and draw) an insect on this page for every activity you complete."

                                     "Butterflies by Florence Rives

Objective: This unit proposes to enlighten us about the beauty and worth of the butterfly by developing an increased appreciation and awareness of the part that butterflies play in the world.

  1. Why are butterflies called butterflies? What are some legends and theories about this?
  2. Describe a butterfly's wings.
  3. Why do you suppose many butterflies are spoken of as "winged flowers?"
  4. Explain what caterpillars are.
  5. How can you tell butterflies from moths?
  6. What are the body parts of a butterfly or any other true insect called?
  7. Write a short paragraph explaining how the butterfly uses its antennae.
  8. 8. What are butterfly wings made of?
  9. What are the purposes of the scents which the butterfly gives off?
  10. List the four stages of life through which the butterfly and the moth go. Draw a sketch of each stage.
  11. Explain what a compound eye is.
  12. List some of the enemies of butterflies. How are butterflies and caterpillars equipped to escape their enemies?
  13. What is molting? How many times does a caterpillar molt before it becomes an adult butterfly?
  14. How long do some butterflies live?
  15. About how many kinds or groups of butterflies are known by scientists?
  16. Describe the butterfly's proboscis. How does the butterfly use it? Write two sentences about it.
  17. Find out about camouflage, or protective coloration, of the butterfly and moth.
  18. What can you find out about the "eyespots" on a butterfly's wings? Why are they there? How do the eyespots help the butterfly?
  19. What do butterflies feed upon? What do caterpillars feed upon? Why do you suppose certain butterflies and caterpillars prefer to eat certain foods?
  20. How do butterflies help people?
  21. Define metamorphosis.
  22. Find out about the migration of certain butterflies. Why do they do this?
  23. How is a "brush-footed" butterfly different from other butterflies?
  24. What United States butterfly is the largest?
  25. If you wanted to have a butterfly haven in your yard, what are some of the plants you would grow?
  26. Research in depth one or two of the following. Write a paper to share with your classmates.
          a.   Tiger Swallowtail                                     b.   Monarch
          c.   Common Sulphur                                    d.   Painted Lady
          e.   Giant Swallowtail                                    f.    Viceroy
          g.   Red Admiral                                           h.   other
    27.  Why do you think some butterflies may be on the endangered list? Discuss.

Things to Do and Think About
  1. Use a large magnifying glass to examine caterpillars when you find them. Do the same for any chrysalis you find.
  2. Go to a museum where collections of butterflies are kept to see different kinds, body and wing markings, etc.
  3. Enjoy looking at many pictures of butterflies in books, magazines, filmstrips, or wherever you find them. By studying their pictures you will be more apt to identify them when you see the real ones. You might also carefully observe the caterpillar pictures in order to match or associate them with the butterflies they will become.
  4. Sketch a butterfly to show its body parts. Label each part.
  5. Use butterflies as motifs to design wallpaper, a bedspread, a bathroom curtain, etc. Select the colors to blend with those of the butterflies.
  6. Selma, Alabama, has been declared the butterfly capital of the state. This was achieved by the efforts of a group of garden clubs, beautification and tourism councils, and Girl and Boy Scouts. It was a conservation effort. In 1985 the Alabama Senate designated April 16 as the annual "Save the Butterfly Day" in Alabama. What do you suppose you might do to have your state and/or city declared a butterfly haven?
  7. Make a set of flashcards using pictures of butterflies. Write the names of butterflies on the back of each card. Study the pictures, and then have a flashcard contest with a (friend or parent).
  8. Sketch and color a desk-size butterfly on cardboard. Cut it into ten or twelve pieces to make a puzzle. See if your (friends or family) can put the puzzle together.
  9. Make a short crossword puzzle with words you have learned during your study of butterflies.
  10. As a (family), choose a favorite butterfly and form a (group) to make a butterfly flag for your (home) or (somewhere).
  11. Select a late spring or early summer month and make a butterfly calendar for that month. Decorate the date squares with colorful butterflies. Make the calendar big enough to be seen easily from the back of the room.
  12. Compile all of your accumulated pictures, clippings, sketches, notes, writings,etc. into a (family) booklet. Add drawings, stories, lists, puzzles, and poems."

Bring, Ruth Butterflies Are Beautiful. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1984.
Brouillette, Jeanne S. Butterflies. Chicago: Follett, 1961.
Fischer, Heiderose and Andreas Nagel. Life of the Butterfly, Minneapolis: Carolrhoda Books, Inc., 1987.
Mitchell, Robert T. and Herbert Zim. A Golden Guide to Butterflies and Moths. New York: Golden Press, 1964.
National Wildlife Federation. National Wildlife. Vienna, VA. Aug./Sept. 1988: pp. 4-11.
Porter, Keith. Discovering Butterflies and Moths. New York: The Bookwrite Press, 1986.
Sammis, Kathy. Butterflies. New York: MacMillan Co., 1965.

Part of June's Learning for the Summer

Posted on July 27, 2014 at 11:46 PM Comments comments (30)
Hopefully, I have no interruptions because Grandma wants to give you the rest of June's learning for the summer lessons. I found out yesterday that we can leave sooner than we were planning to go see my husband's father before he passes on. He is in his ninety's and was still carrying leaves from the plants and stuff to his small herd of cattle and a few horses he had grown to and called from the field everyday. He was strong enough to walk two miles each day if not more. A very interesting person to know. He is in the villages of Mexico that my husband grew up in and was given his grandfathers ox, plow, and land at the age of seven to feed his ten brothers and sisters with. He did it for ten years. We are going there by bus because it the least expensive and safest travel around. 
However, it only leaves 3 to 4 days to type up the material Grandma wants to give you. I may be able to get a laptop to help or get my tablet working to my advantage, we will see. I will be back to start the school year again. Please take care and I wish the best for your learning.

Grandma stopped at June 7th in the Calendar History so we will pick up there for learning. I will try to get to the end of June today, July tomorrow, and August before I leave.
The birthdays for June 7 are as follows:

June 7, 1848 Paul Gauguin, French painter was born

June 7, 1917 Gwendolyn Brooks, American poet was born

The events for June 7th are as follows:

June 7, 1776 Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed to the Continental 
Congress a Resolution Calling for Independence of the American 
Colonies from Britain.

June 7, 1862 The United States and Britain signed A Treaty for the 
Suppression of the Slave Trade.

June 7, 1864 Abraham Lincoln was renominated for the presidency in Baltimore.

June 7, 1892 George T. Sampson invented the Clothes Dryer.

Book (1) says in "Futuristic clothes dryers-Before the clothes dryer was invented, people hung their clothes outside to dry in the air. Ask your (children) to list the benefits of this method--for example, it uses renewable solar energy and costs nothing. How do students think people of the future will dry their clothes? Have them work in groups to design a clothes dryer for the year 2020.

June 7, 1892 J.J. Doyle of the Cleveland Spiders became 
Baseball's First Pinch Hitter.

Book (1) says in "Pinch hitting for others-Discuss the term pinch hitter with your (children). Then challenge them to think of ways the term can be applied to situations outside of baseball. For example, does a substitute teacher "pinch-hit" for a classroom teacher who's ill? Ask your students to recall times when they've pinch-hit for a family member or friend. Have them write about these experiences."

June 7, 1893 George Harbo and Frank Samuelson started a Rowboat 
Trip from New York City to England, arriving on Aug.3.

June 7, 1948 Dwight Eisenhower became president of Columbia University.

June 7, 1984 A Tornado leveled the town of Barneveld, Wis.

June 7 is also Japan's day for the Rice Festival.

Book(1) says in "Rice recipes-Tell your (children) that about two-thirds of the world's population relies on rice as a staple food. A grain of rice has an outer hull, or shell, which is not eaten. Inside the hull is the kernel, which is covered by thin layers of skin called bran coats. Most of the vitamins and minerals in rice are found in the bran coats. To have your own ... rice festival, (use) some cooked brown, wild, and white rice for your (children) to taste. Which kind do they like best? Why? Invite the children to ...(think of their own favorite rice recipes to share with one another and make a booklet of them.)"

The next day is June 8th. There is only one birthday for June 8th are as follows:

June 8, 1867 Frank LLoyd Wright, American archittect

Book (1) says in Bold architecture-Frank LLoyd Wright, considered one of the world's greatest architects, designed homes and commercial buildings for more than 70 years. Among his most daring designs was "Fallingwater," a house in Pennsylvania that projects out over a waterfall. Show your students pictures of "Fallingwater" and other houses designed by Wright. Discuss how his buildings blend into the surrounding environment. Then ask the kids to describe and illustrate their dream houses, focusing in particular on the relationship of the house to surrounding natural features." ( Use Frank's Link to see his work and find out more about him. It is utterly amazing.)
(I could not get an image-I really tried)

The Events for June 8th are as follows:

June 8, 1504 Michelangelo's statue David was installed in 
front of the Palazzo della Signoria in Florence.

June 8, 1783 Laki, a volcano in southern Iceland, began erupting. 
The Eruption lasted 8 Months.

(This is a good time to review some of our common disasters that happen and what they look like.)
Book(1) says in "Climatic catastrophe-The Laki volcanic eruption of 1783 created the largest lava flow--about 220 square miles--in recorded history. (That is about half the size of Nebraska) In addition, it spedwed enormous volumes of ash and sulfurous gas into the atmosphere, producing a bluish haze that shrouded Iceland and most of northern Europe for months. Livestock deaths led to a famine that killed 10,000 Icelanders, and climatic changes were worldwide. Several years of poor harvests followed, which may or may not have resulted from the eruption. Some environmentalists believe the Laki eruption should serve as a warning to industrialized societies about the dangers of global climate change. Ask your (children) to list documented or suspected man-made changes to the world's environment (for example, ozone depletion, global warming), their causes (use of certain chemical refrigerants and aerosols; increased carbon dioxide resulting from the burning of fossil fuels), and possible remedies."

June 8, 1786 Ice Cream was first sold in the United States, in New York City.

June 8, 1789 The Bill of Rights was first proposed by James Madison.

June 8, 1835 The Largest Flower on record, a calla lily, 
bloomed at the New York Botanical Gardens. It was
 8 1/2 feet tall, 4 feet in diameter, and 12 feet in circumference.

June 8, 1869 Ives W. McGaffey received a patent for the Vacuum Cleaner.

June 8, 1939 George VI became the First British Monarch to Visit the United States.

June 8, 1963 The American Heart Association began its 
Campaign Against Cigarette Smoking.

Book (1) says in "Hazards of smoking-In recognition of the American Heart Association's fight against smoking, have your (children) make a ...list of health hazards associate with cigarettes. Post the list ...(for others) see.

June 8, 1982 Ronald Reagan became the First U.S. President to 
Address the British Parliament.

The next day is June 9 as follows:

June 9, 1812 Johann Galle, German astronomer, who first sighted the 
planet Neptune was born.

June 9, 1893 Cole Porter, American composer, was born.

June 9, 1961 Michael J. Fox, Canadian actor, was born.

The Events for the day are as follows:

June 9, 1790 The Philadelphia Spelling Book-became 
the First Book Registered for a U.S. Copyright.

June 9, 1877 Samuel Clemens explained the meaning of his pen name, 
Mark Twain.

June 9, 1893 Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performed the 
First Successful Open-Heart Surgery.

June 9, 1934 The Disney cartoon character Donald Duck debuted in 
The Wise Hen.

Book (1) gives this activity in "This duck's not daffy-Donald Duck was created as a foil for Mickey Mouse and made his screen debut in Walt Disney's The Wise Hen  6 years after Disney had introduced the world-famous rodent. Ask your students to imagine they're newspaper reporters interviewing Donald Duck. Then provide them with a list of interview questions, such as: How did you get parents? What happened to them? Will you and Daisy ever get married? Why do you both have the same last name? What do you do for a living? Does Daisy work? What do you think about Daffy Duck? Have the students create answers to these questions, then incorporate them into a newspaper article.

June 9, 1943 Congress authorized employers to Withhold Income 
Tax Payments from their workers' paychecks.

June 9, 1973 With a win at the Belmont Stakes, Secretariat became 
Horse Racing's First Triple Crown Winner In 25 Years.

June 9, 1983 Cabbage Patch Kids dolls made their debut.

Book (1) explains in "Dream toys-Three million Cabbage Patch Kids dolls were sold in the first year after their introduction, making them the most successful new dolls in the history of the toy industry. If possible, have a volunteer bring on of these dolls to class, and ask your (children) to speculate on why they were so popular.Then invite the children to design their own dream toys. Have each (child) write a description of the toy, the materials it would be made of, how it would operate, what kind of package it would come in, how much it would cost, and so on. Next, have the children draw and color pictures of their toys, design logos, and create names. As an extra challenge, have them create promotional slogans, jingles, or print ads."

June 10th is our next day starting with the birthdays as follows:

June 10, 1921 Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh and husband of Queen Elizabeth II

June 10, 1928 Maurice Sendak, children's author and illustrator

The Events for the day are as Follows:

June 10, 1610 The First Dutch Settlers in America arrived on Manhattan Island.

June 10, 1682 The First Recorded Tornado struck New Haven, Conn.

June 10, 1776 The Continental Congress appointed a Drafting 
Committee for the Declaration of Independence.

Book (1) says in "Group dynamics-Tell your (children) that the drafting committee for the Declaration of Independence had several members, including Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams. However, Thomas Jefferson did the lion's share of the work. Ask your (children) to speculate why. Then have them discuss what they're like in a group. Do they let others do most of the work, or do they like to take charge? Finally, have your (children) take turns reading aloud passages from the Declaration of Independence."

June 10, 1935 Alcoholics Anonymous was founded by 
Dr. Robert Smith and William S. Wilson.

June 10, 1938 A Giant Panda named Pandora arrived at the Bronx Zoo.

Book (1) says in "Panda predicament-Giant pandas, which are native to China and Tibet, may reach 6 feet in length and weigh 220 pounds. They feed mainly on species of bamboo plants, two of which have unusual life cycles. Every 100 years, these plants produce seeds, then die. It takes several years for new plants to grow from the seeds. In the meantime, the giant pandas are without a major food source. This situation last occurred in the 1970s. And by the 1980s, about one-fourth of the giant panda population had starved to death. Have your (children) research the current status of the world panda population. How many pandas live in zoos?"

Book (57) has activities and learning to do about Pandas starting on page 173 in "Pandas at Play-Giant pandas, "hermits of the forest," once roamed over vast areas. As bamboo was cleared for farming, their range was restricted. Today they are confined to 12 reserves set aside for them by the Chinese government. These unique animals are considered a national treasure.
Read to discover: What is unique about the giant panda? Brainstorm to list everything the (children) knows about the animals. Read to separate fact from fiction and revise the list. Organize your findings and do one of the following activities.

  1. Write a short summary to tell what you think is important to know about the giant panda. Include facts, opinions, and personal reactions.
  2. Although pandas have distinct markings, the pandas can seem to disappear if they sense approaching danger. Explain how, despite their black and white fur, they can easily hide . Make a diorama to show how a giant panda's coloring serves as camouflage from enemies.
  3. A panda uses all of its senses to protect itself. Write a sense poem from the panda's point of view. I see...I hear...I smell...I taste...I feel.
  4. Where did the giant panda once live in China? Where would it be found today? Pinpoint your findings on a map.
  5. How do the following physical features:                                                                                    a. help the panda to feed on bamboo?(front paws, jaws, and teeth)                                            b. adapt to the cold climate? (fur
  6. Choose a member of the bear family to compare to the giant panda. Find out about its size, feeding habits, climbing and hunting abilities, claws, teeth, and jaws. On a Venn diagram, show how the two animals are alike and different.

The Panda Club--What dangers do the young pandas face? What are some skills a baby panda has to learn? What predators endanger the life of the young? Make a chart indicating the size and development of the young panda from birth to one year.

Bamboo--Describe the bamboo plant and the part it plays in the diet of the panda. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a diet of bamboo? Because all varieties of bamboo periodically flower and die, the giant panda, at times, is left without an adequate food supply. What is the Chinese government doing to help the panda during these times? Another problem arises when people clear the bamboo forests to farm. How will this eventually affect the panda population? What can be done to solve the problem? After thinking about the questions above, write a report about the bamboo plant and the giant panda's dependence on it. Include information, observations, and possible solutions to the problems that arise as the bamboo forests disappear.

Create and Share

  1. If a panda kept a diary of everyday occurrences, what would he or she have to say about them?
  2. How do you feel about the future of the panda? What would you do if you were a scientist studying the problem? As a zookeeper, how would you educate the public?
  3. It is a fact that pandas drink large quantities of water. Two legends have been written to explain this phenomenon. In one, the panda sees his reflection in the water. Thinking it's another panda, he drinks quickly to keep the other panda from getting its share. In the other, he is bothered by the constant running of water as melting snow feeds streams. He tries to stop the flow by drinking it.                                                                                                                             a. Use an idea from above and write the legend in your own words.                                             b. Make up your own story to explain why the panda is so thirsty."

This section on pandas is from a unit in Book (57) called Penguins, Pandas, and Zebras by Pat O'Brien. 

The purpose of this unit is to study three animals--penguins, pandas, and zebras. While totally different, their common bond is their black and white coloring. To learn about their physical features, habitats, feeding habits, and care of their young, collect data from books, magazines, field trips, TV nature programs and films (listen and read). Recycle this information by organizing reports, creating displays, and sharing activities (write and speak).( I cannot get any images to save on machine for some reason right now. If you ask for a free pictures site of animals there is lots of pictures. Something is holding me back from getting them right now.)
Procedure: Sometimes reading materials will present ideas you hadn't thought of before or will make you think about something in a different way. Often it reaffirms what you already know. In order to get the most out of your reading, determine what you want to find out before you begin. List questions you want answered. They may e general (Where does it live? How big is it? What does it eat?) or more specific (Where would you expect to find an emperor penguin? Why is it necessary for the panda to eat large amounts of bamboo? What predator is most feared by the zebra?). After the materials have been read and the answers to questions located, compare the ideas and and organize the facts. Decide how you want to present your information... .

Penguins on Parade--Not all penguins think ice is nice. Eighteen species may be found from Antarctica to the equator. They swim and feed in the ocean and come to land to lay eggs and to milt.

Read to Discover: Brainstorm to find out what the class knows about penguins. After reading, separate fact from fiction. Select three or four species of penguins to study. Organize your ideas by completing the following chart.

Type of penguin







  1. Use the information on the chart to write a report about one or more species of penguins.
  2. On a map, locate the areas where penguins live. Indicate which species you would find in each area.
  3. Compare the penguin with birds who are able to fly. Think how a penguin's wings, feather, bones, and body shape make it well adapted to swimming.
  4. Compile a riddle book without giving away the answers too easily. Hints about physical features, location in the southern hemisphere or peculiar nesting habits would be appropriate.
  5. Give a thumbnail sketch of one species of penguins. Tell where it lives, what it eats, and who its predators are. Draw a picture of the penguin. This may be put in a class book, displayed on the bulletin board, or used as a flashcard to review facts about the bird.
  6. Make a chart showing the average height of the various species. How do they measure up to members of the class?
  7. Classify the different species of penguin: largest to smallest; crested to not crested.
  8. Compare king and emperor (largest), or emperor and adele (both live in Antarctica).
  9. Assemble a glossary of terms. Begin with the following brooding, creche, down, krill, molt, rookery, and tobogganing. What other words could you add that are important to understand when studying penguins? Include them in your glossary.

Predators--Find answers to the following questions. Use the information to prepare a report about the penguin and its predators. What birds and animals do penguins fear the most on land and in the ocean? How does the penguin's coloring protect it from predators while it is in the water? What is the place of predators in the balance of nature?
Flightless Birds--Besides the penguin there are other flightless birds (ostrich, emu, cassowary, kiwi, and rhea). Select one to study. What is its outstanding feature? How does it adapt to its environment? How does it compare to the penguin? Write a series of cinquains to describe these birds.
The Penguin Chick--How do parents care for these young birds? What dangers do they face? How is their appearance different from adult penguins?On a time line, show the growth and development of the penguin chick from the time it hatches until it is ready to go to the sea.
Create and Share

  1. To become more familiar with the names of the various penguin groups, plan a word search you can share with your friends.
  2. Assemble a flip ook to capture a penguin walking on land or swimming in the sea.
  3. Based on what you know about penguins, write a few journal entries from the point of view of the bird, predator, or scientist.

Zebras with Zip
--While a zebra resembles a horse in many ways, it is not a horse with stripes. The domestic horse and the zebra have many things in common, but there are differences as well. In the wild, the zebra is found on the continent of Africa. There are three main species (plains, mountain, and Grevy's) with several regional types within each group.
Read to Discover: Before reading a section, determine what you already know about the three species of zebras. Organize your ideas by completing the following chart.

       Physical                      Features


   Stripe Pattern


  1. As you read, add to the recorded information and correct errors. Use the information on the chart to write about one species of zebra or to compare two or three types. Include an opening statement, specific information, and a personal observation.
  2. Compile a book of stripe patterns to show how the zebra differs from one type to the next. The pattern differences are best seen when viewing the animal from behind.
  3. How do the following help to protect the zebra from predators: eyes, ears, nos, feet, and legs? Using a series of verb phrases, describe how each protective feature enables the zebra to escape danger. (Eyes peer across the grassy plains searching the lengthening shadows....)
  4. How do the zebra's height, ears, mane, and hooves compare with those of a horse? Make a chart to show the differences between the domesticated horse and the zebra.
  5. The same terminaology is used to describe the horse and zebra. Define the following words: stallion, mare, colt, filly, and yearling. Use these definitions tobegin a dictionary of horse/zebra terms.

Other Zebras--Choose one or more of the following to learn about: zebra butterfly, zebra finch, zebra fish, zebrawood, or zebra plant. From your findings, compile a class book of zebras.

Create and Share

  1.  For a puzzling experiance, write a story abou a zebra using words with as many z's as possible.
  2. Write a story to explain why the zebra has stripes.
  3. Create imaginary animals by combining outstanding features of two or more animals. What would a zebra-giraffe look like? How about a leopard-zebra? Briefly describe it, tell where it lives, what it eats, and who its predators are. Give your combination animal a name. Use papier-mache to construct models of these unusual animals.

Additional Activities--


  1. Use a rubber stamp of the main character (panda, penguin, or zebra) instead of writing its name when writing a report or story. Other pictures may be added to the rebus writing.
  2. Use factual information combined with imagination to create a story about the animal of your choice.
  3. If animals could speak, what would they say? Decide on questions you would like to ask pandas, penguins, and/or zebras. How do you suppose they would respond? Write their answers for them and publish the interview.
  4. Prepare a mural. Plan what you want to include, draw appropriate pictures, and record the information you wish to share. Write a study guide that can be used to extend the understanding and appreciation of the bird or animal you chose.

Say it with Art

  1. Think of a catchy phrase to help save the animals. Use your idea to decorate a bumper sticker.
  2. Assemble calendars featuring pandas, zebras, and penguins. ... .
  3. Make a scene inside a shoe box. Cut a hole at one end to allow viewing the scene. Remove the lid and cover with tissue paper or cut a slit in the lid to admit light.
  4. Make a theme mobile. Select (at least) one of the three animals. Use pictures, drawings, interesting information, and imaginative writing.
  5. On a piece of butcher paper, design a banner. Include a drawing or photo of the animal and prose or poetry to convey the message you wish to deliver. Attach the completed work to a coat hanger to display

Travels to Another ContinentIf you could visit one of the animals in its natural habitat, where would you go? What would you want to observe?

  1. If you have a zoo nearby, take pictures of the animals in a natural setting. In the case of the zebra and penguin, include photos of other animals that would be found in the same habitat. Make a poster to display the animal groups.
  2. Pretend you are asked to prepare a recording to use at the zoo. What could you say in 45 seconds that would be informative and interesting? You would want to alert the visitor to look for certain markings and behaviors.
  3. Write a job description for each of the following members of a zoo staff; director, curator, veterinarian, keeper, other specialists.
  4. Suppose you were a member of a staff that was considering displaying penguins in your zoo. What concerns would be discussed? From what you have learned about penguins, how would you go about preparing a living space for these birds? What should be included in their diets? What substitutions might you have to make? Dramatize a meeting between the members of the staff as they consider the plan. (In place of penguins, consider the arrival of a small herd of zebra or the loan of a pair of pandas.)
  5. Write a letter to your local zoo congratulating its efforts to provide natural environments or persuading them to update their exhibits.
  6. What complaints might the birds/animals have? Write a letter on their behalf describing the problem and presenting a possible solution.

Photo Opportunities--Collect pictures of pandas, penguins, and zebras. Use them to complete the following activities.

  1. Arrange the pictures in the order needed to tell a story. Write an account of what is happening in the sequence of photos.
  2. Describe what is happening in the picture. Write a caption or factual explanation. Slip into a photo album to display.
  3. Instead of captions use speech balloons. Have the animals do the talking.
  4. Use photographs as an inspiration for poetry. Experiment with different types to find a form that best expresses your thoughts and feelings.

Something to Think.Talk About

  1. Use the following open-ended questions to formulate topics for impromptu speeches, reports, or interviews.                                                                                                                              a. How do you feel about _______________________?                                                              b. From what you know of___________________, what do you think_________________?          c. If_________________, what would happen?                                                                          d. Instead of__________________, how would you_______________________?  
  2. Today there are animals in the world who are having trouble surviving. Through your reading about the panda, zebra, or penguin, can you pinpoint the problems they are facing and begin to think about solutions? What can we do to better the situation? Make a list of problems faced by the animals. Brainstorm to arrive at ... solutions June 10, 1943 A Hungarian journalist named H. Biro patented The Ballpoint Pen.


  1. Compile a book of the "Most Wanted" penguins or zebras. Include their scientific names, descriptions, (including any special features or habits), and their pictures.
  2. Put together a book of lists. List ten things:                                                                              a. to remember about a panda, penguin, or zebra.                                                                    b. to see in a bamboo forest.                                                                                                  c. to look for in the Arctic Ocean.                                                                                          d. to avoid during a safari.                                                                                                      e. to notice at the zoo.                                                                                                          f. to do with a toy panda.

Art IdeasThe following art activities may be completed using only black and white materials or by introducing another color to complement the design.

  1. Apply white crayon heavily to a sheet of black sandpaper. Transfer the design or picture to a piece of black construction paper using a warm iron.
  2. Make wrapping paper using rubber stamps and black ink on white paper.
  3. Experiment making designs with black ink, paint, crayon, marker, etc. on different sizes of white paper. Use the art as book covers, place mats, or wrapping paper.
  4. Make your own note paper using simplified designs of the panda, penguin, or zebra.
  5. A silhouette is an outline of an object, filled in with black. Make a silhouette of one of the animals studied in the unit.
  6. make refrigerator magnets using homemade craft clay. Roll out the clay, cut around a pattern, paint when dry, and fasten magnetic tape to the back.
  7. Construct a loom using a foam tray with the center removed. Use a variety of simple weaving techniques to create a design with yarn.
  8. 8. Weave with paper to come up with some unusual patterns. Cut the strips straight, wavy, zigzagged, or combine the three.
  9. Make a mosaic using rice to create a representational picture of abstract design. Dye some of the rice black.
  10. Use want ads as a background for a crayon or painted picture."

June 10, 1944 Cincinnati's Joe Nuxhall became Major League 
Baseball's Youngest Player Ever, at 15 years, 10 months, 11 days.

Book (1) says in "Youthful hurler-During World War II, major league baseball teams scrambled to replace their regular players, many of whom were overseas, with any available talent. So it was that Cincinnati pitcher Joe Nuxhall broke into the league before his 16th birthday. To mark this event, have your (children) write a fantasy story about their debut--at their current age--in a favorite professional sport or other career."

June 10, 1963 The Equal Pay Act, prohibiting wage discrimination 
because of sex, was enacted.

June 11 breaks into the month with a Hawaiian celebration and introduces things about the Ocean/
It has 6 birthdays as follows:

June 11, 1758 Kamehameha I, Polynesian king who unified the Hawaiian Islands was born.

Therefore it is considered King Kamehameha Day in (Hawaii).
Book (1) tells about the "Hawaiian celebration-Tell your (children) that King Kamehameha I united Hawaii's small quareling island kingdoms into one strong and peaceful nation. To honor him, Hawaiians hold parades and luaus. Hold a Hawaiian-style celebration in your own (home). Ask your students to wear colorful shirts or muumuu-like dresses. Make leis out of tissue paper or cutout flowers. Then, with a tablecloth spread on the floor, feast papayas), plus macadamia nuts and punch."

Book (57) has a section called ""Aloha" Party--by Tania K Cowling
 "Aloha" means love. The Hawaiian people use this word to say "hello" and "good-bye." Here are a few party ideas to turn your (home) into a festive Hawaiian luau.

Create Your Island
Decorate the (house) with real or construction-paper palm leaves, flowers, sea shells, pineapples, balloons, and tropical fish.

Hanging Fish
Cut fish of different shapes out of posterboard. Paint both sides of the fish with bright colors and patterns. Punch a hole at the top and thread with ribbon or yarn. Hang fish around the room from the ceiling and doorways.

Hawaiian Leis
(I believe you can find some ways to make the flowers on you tube, just look under tissue paper flowers for leis.)Make a flower lei for each (person)... to wear at the party. Leis represent "aloha spirit," which expresses love and friendship. Cut a simple flower shape from different colors construction paper. Punch a hole in the center of each flower. String the flowers onto yarn necklaces, using cut-up  straws as spacers. Colorful tissue paper or crepe paper can also be used for flowers.

Prepare the Food

Fruity Salad
2 melons, cut into chunks (cantaloupe and honeydew)
2 large cans chunk pineapple with juice
2 jars red maraschino cherries with syrup
Green seedless grapes
Sliced bananas
Mix all the fruit together and chill. Serve the fruit in paper cups. Include a colorful cocktail toothpick to spear the fruit.

Jaws of Jell-O® into the "jaw" shells and chill till firm. Sprinkle with shredded coconut and serve.

Plantation Punch
Mix pineapple juice with ginger ale. Freeze the orange sections saved from the orange "jaws" in water for fancy ice cubes. Add these cubes to chill the punch.

Snack Bowl
Pour goldfish crackers and gummy fish into a clear fish bowl. Use this as a colorful enterpiece for your luau table and scoop out a snack for each student.

Play Some Games

Play Hawaiian music. Make hula skirts using brown butcher paper, measure a piece to fit around each child like a skirt. Cut fringe from the bottom up to mid-hip. Tape or staple the skirt to fit around the waist. Invite students to be hula dancers and tell stories of nature using hand movements and swaying hips.
Grab a bamboo stick or even an old broom handle and do the "Limbo." Have students attempt to go under the limbo stick as it is moved closer to the floor.

Relay of the Sea
Divide the class into teams and designate a finish line. Have each student in line move across the room using "sea animal" movements. For example, the first child in line goes across like a jaw-opening shark, the second child is a wobbling jellyfish, third in line crawls sideways like a crab, and so forth. Make up enough movements for each student on the relay team. The first team to complete all the movements wins the relay.

Pin the Palm Tree on Hawaii
Tape a world map on the wall. Make small construction-paper palm trees and attach a piece of tape on the back. Blindfold students and head them in the direction of the map. Whoever tapes a palm tree closest to Hawaii wins the game.

Hawaiian Word Game(This can be played on a colorful flier paper.)
The Hawaiian alphabet consists of the following letters. See how many English words you can make out of these letters.

a        e       i      o      u      h      k    

Day 1 of the Summer Session

Posted on July 15, 2014 at 3:00 AM Comments comments (13)
Dear Folks:
Apparently Grandma was trying to get up to May 24 of the Calendar History, Book (1 ). However I guess I did not catch May 23 which is just as well. Therefore, I will cover it now.
The First birthday on May 23 is in 1707 when Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist and founder of taxonomy, was born.
 Next in 1734, Dr. Franz Mesmer, German physician who developed a treatment called Mesmerism, which is the basis of the word mesmerize, was born.
 In 1824 Ambrose Everett Burnside, American Civil War general whose whiskers on the side of his face were called Burnsides and later sideburns, was born.
In 1910 Margaret Wise Brown, children's author, was born.
The events that happened on that day began in 1785 when In a letter, Benjamin Franklin wrote about his new invention, Bifocal Eyeglasses.
In 1788 South Caroline became the eight state.
In 1873Canada established the Northwest Mounted Police.
In 1903 Eleven-year-old William Frederick Price became the Youngest Soldier to enlist in the British Army in this century.
In 1984 C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, said there was solid evidence that Nonsmokers can suffer Lung Damage from Inhaling Other People's Cigarette Smoke.
In 1989 An Italian Interior Designer named Stefania Follini climbed Out of the Cave in Carlsbad, N.M., in which she had spent the previous 130 days.  
Activities included on this day in Book (1) are as follows:
"Plant classifications
Have your (children) look up the word taxonomy in the dictionary. Then encourage them to walk through their neighborhood to observe flowering plants, writing careful notes and making detailed drawings of the specimens they find. Have them use these observational records and their research skills to find the scientific names of their plants.
A state by any other name
South Carolina is nicknamed the Palmetto State. Have your (children) investigate their state's nickname. How did the nickname originate? Invite the dis to create a nickname for their hometown, then write a silly story explaining how the name came to be.
(Along with this activity Grandma would like the children to find anything they can about any of the states and do as planning a trip to travel through each state on a very long vacation.) 
Selecting pseudonyms
Margaret Wise Brown wrote stories about feeling lonesome, getting lost, and acting naughty or silly. She wrote more than 100 books in her career, some published under the pen names Golden MacDonald, Timothy Hay, and Juniper Sage. Have your (children) each write a story using one of the topics Brown often wrote about. Then have them choose their own pen names. Why did they select a particular name?"
These should go along with the ideas Grandma gave you in the summer introduction. This is it for today.

Summer Introduction

Posted on July 13, 2014 at 1:17 AM Comments comments (42)
Dear Folks:
     Here are the beginning of the summer lessons I promised you. I am sorry it has taken me so long to get them started. I am having my share of problems this summer. Grandma is at the point she felt you better be told straight that she feels the public schools would have been better to have left the classes running later into June and start after Labor Day. She feels these kinds of things are easier on the children. That it does not make sense and makes things stressful. She also feels it is easier on the parents. Therefore, she is going to be giving her lessons in that pattern. We will run these summer classes till the 1st of September and she will make sure her winter or fall classes start that way or do.
She will also still be giving you her books and finish Patricia Gallagher's helpful hints. I will also have an additional topic of etiquette to cover this summer also. I want to give more ideas on real estate and decorating also. I will also give the rest of the calendar history and famous people (7 to 8 days at a time). I hope you have started to review or started before July the American History, at least the revolution by starting the time line again, for the 4th of July. Else you may want to start it now.
I will be on vacation in August so you may not be able to reach Grandma during that time. I am sorry.
Grandma is also trying to get into more products. As I mentioned before I am always open for suggestions. I hope to get some more things going.
Learning for the summer should evolve around the Earth elements of Water, Air, and Land. Be sure to involve words, letters(for younger children), math with objects, crosswords, mazes, etc.Involve reading and researching, writing, art, and physical activity. Explain the elements of the Earth to the children and what can be in each. Then learn about each as the Air: What it is made of and what is effecting it right now as pollutants or bad chemicals. Learn how it effects our land and ourselves. Cover the same with the Land. Learn how it all effects the Land. Work into the plants and animals of the land including the insects and plants. Talk about what is in it. Talk about what is happening to our insects. Research about Monsanto, GMO;s pollutants, and organic planting. Flowers and other plants, forests, etc. Then learn about the water, animals and plants in it also. Learn about safety in the water, in our homes, and out and about.
Review the history through the time line and collect the rest Grandma will be providing. Decorate a room and learn measurements. Cooking teaches a lot.
Learn how to start sewing by first learning the tools used, materials, and parts of the machine. Practice by sewing two strips of material together.
Learn how to do rag rugs, sew pot holders together, aprons, curtains, pillow cases, quilts, doll clothes, covers for tables, and bibs.
Plant plants if you do not have a garden already. Plant seeds in pots. Beans and cantaloupe grow fast and work well for starters.
Have fun and enjoy what there is for summer. Grandma will try to give all she can. Must go for tonight. I will give more tomorrow night.

Day 179

Posted on June 1, 2014 at 10:22 PM Comments comments (31)
Here is the Calendar History Timeline and Activities for 1800 and 1900 of December.
Dec. 12, 1800 Congress voted to establish Washington, D.C.
as the nation's Permanent Capital.
Dec, 8, 1801 Ebenezer Cobb, who Lived in Three Centuries, died at age 107.
Dec. 24, 1801 The American painter and naturalist Charles Willson
Peale exhibited a Mounted Skeleton of a Mastodon.
Dec. 20, 1803 The Louisiana Territory was formally transferred from
France to the United States, which had purchased the territory for
about $20 per square mile.
Dec. 2, 1804 Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself emperor of France.
Dec. 24, 1814 The War of 1812 ended.
"A second victory: By the end of the War of 1812--often called the second war for independence--Americans felt a renewed pride in their fledgling nation, and countries around the world began to view the United States more seriously. Have your students discuss what might have happened if the British had been victorious in the War of 1812. How do they think U.S. citizens would have been treated? What would the British have done with the leaders of the former United States? Finally, have your (children) write a story set in the present and based on the premise that England had won the War of 1812. What are some of the ways the kids' lives today would be different?"
Dec. 2, 1816 The Philadelphia Savings Fund Society, the First Mutual
Savings Bank in the United States, opened for business.
Dec. 11, 1816 Indiana became the 19th state.
Dec. 10, 1817 Mississippi became the 20th state.
Dec. 3, 1818 Illinois became the 21st state.
Dec. 24, 1818 Joseph Mohr, a pastor in Oberndorf, Germany,
wrote the words for "Silent Night." Franz Gruber,
the schoolmaster and organist, composed the music.
Dec. 25, 1818 "Silent Night" was performed for the first time,
in the village church in Oberndorf, Austria.
Dec. 14, 1819 Alabama became the 22nd state.
Dec. 20, 1820 Missouri levied a $1 per year Tax on
Bachelors between the ages of 20 and 50.
Dec. 27, 1820 John Quincy Adams opined that the
District of Columbia needed more monuments.
Dec. 23, 1823 "A Visit From St. Nicholas," by Clement Clarke
Moore, was first published.
Dec. 25, 1831 Louisiana and Arkansas became The First States
to Observe Christmas as a Legal Holiday.
Dec. 27, 1831 The HMS Beagle set sail from Davenport, England,
on a voyage to South America and certain Pacific Islands.
On board was the naturalist Charles Darwin, whose
observations from the 5-year trip formed the Basis of
the Theory of Evolution. (Remember, Grandma caught
some news stating that in finding a certain skull they
discovered Man did not come from the Ape.)
Dec. 28, 1832 John C. Calhoun became the First Vice President
to Resign from Office.
Dec. 3, 1833 Oberlin College in Ohio became the First Coed College.
Dec. 4, 1839 The Whig Party held its first national convention in
Harrisburg, Pa., and nominated William Henry Harrison.
Dec. 8, 1840 Dr. David Livingstone set sail for Africa.
Dec. 7, 1842 The New York Philharmonic Society, the oldest symphony
 orchestra in the United States, was formed.
Dec. 9, 1842 The First Christmas Cards were created in England.
Dec. 4, 1843 Manila Paper was patented.
Dec. 17, 1843 A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, was first published.
Dec.11, 1844 Dr. Horace Wells became the First Dentist
to use an Anesthetic for a tooth extraction.
Dec. 26, 1845 Marthasville, Ga., changed its name to Atlanta.
Dec. 29, 1845 Texas became the 28th state.
Dec. 28, 1846 Iowa became the 29th state.
Dec. 6, 1847 Abraham Lincoln Took His Seat In Congress as a
representative from Illinois.
"A memorial in words: The author Carl Sandburg was a great admirer of Abraham Lincoln. He wrote more than 4,000 pages on our 16th president. Have your (children) estimate how many words that represents. Then have them count the words on a couple pages from Sandburg's Lincoln biographies and revise their estimates."
Dec. 22, 1847 Congressman Abraham Lincoln of Illinois made his
first speech in the House of Representatives.
Dec. 5, 1848 President James K. Polk announced The Discovery of
Gold in California.
Dec. 28, 1848 Gaslights were first used in the White House.
Dec. 12, 1851 Dr. Joel Robert Poinsett, an American diplomat
for whom The Poinsettia was named, died.
"The poinsettia's story: After serving as ambassador to Mexico, Dr. Joel Poinsett returned to his South Carolina home with a colorful plant called "Flame Leaf" or "Flower of the Holy Land." The plant was renamed "poinsettia" in his honor. Challenge your (children) to research the people for whom these plants were named: zinnia (Johann Gottfried Zinn), begonia (Michel Begon), dahlia (Anders Dahl), fuchsia (Leonhard Fuchs), and Lewisia (Meriwether Lewis).
Many other words in our language honor people. Have your (children) investigate the etymology of the following: silhouette, sandwich, saxophone, braille, Douglas fir, maverick, zeppelin, volt, and guppy."
Dec. 29, 1851 The First YMCA in the United States opened in Boston.
Dec. 30 1853 The Gadsen Purchase was signed, giving the
United States 29,640 square miles of Mexican territory.
Dec. 20. 1860 South Caroline became the First State to Secede from the Union.
Dec. 31, 1862 The Monitor, the Union's ironclad warship, sank.
Dec. 8, 1863 President Abraham Lincoln announced his
Plan for the Reconstruction of the South.
Dec. 18, 1865 The Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slaver, was ratified.
Dec. 26, 1865 James Mason patented The Coffee Percolator.
Dec. 5, 1868 The First School to Teach Bicycle Riding opened in New York City.
Dec. 24, 1968 The Apollo 8 Astronauts Broadcast a
Christmas Message while orbiting the moon.
Dec. 28, 1869 Chewing Gum was patented by
William Semple of Mount Vernon, Ohio.
"Gum study: Make chewing gum the focus of a ...investigation. Purchase four of five different types of gum. Then decide on some questions to study. For example: What is the color of the gum before chewing? What is the color of the gum after chewing? Is it still sticky after 100 chews? What is the cost per stick? Calculate the number of "enjoyable" chews per stick and determine the cost per chew."
Dec. 19, 1871 Corrugated Paper was Patented.
Dec. 7, 1877 Thomas Edison demonstrated the first phonograph.
Dec. 30, 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes became the first president to
celebrate his silver wedding anniversary in the White House.
Dec. 1, 1878 A Telephone was first installed in the White House.
"First-family phone: When the White House first got a phone, few phones were in use anywhere. Telephones were sold in pairs, so each phone could connect with only one other. People couldn't call long distance.
Sometimes they couldn't even call across town. Have your (children) think of reasons the president might need a phone. Whom might he have to call? How could the phone help him in emergencies? Then ask your kids to describe the procedure for making an emergency call."
Dec. 31, 1879 Thomas Edison demonstrated his
Incandescent Lamp to a New Year's Eve crowd.
Dec. 20, 1880 Electric Lights First Lit Up Broadway in New York City.
Dec. 6, 1884 The Washington Monument was completed when a
3,300-pound capstone was placed atop it.
Dec. 9, 1884 Ball-Bearing Roller Skates were patented by Levant Richardson.
"Fad fun: One hundred years ago, roller skating was a national fad. Have your (children) list some current fads. Do they think these fads will last? As a special assignment, ask (the children) to quiz their (family) about fads they remember."
Dec. 15, 1886 The number of shares traded on the New York Stock
Exchange in a single day exceeded 1 million for the first time.
Dec. 25, 1887 The character Sherlock Holmes first appeared in
Beaton's Christmas Annual.
Dec 3, 1888 The Longest Lease on Record--10 million years--was signed in
Columb Barracks, Ireland. It was for a pot of land.
"In the year 10,001,888: Have your (children) write science-fiction stories set on Dec. 3, 10,001,888--the day the Columb Barracks lease expires. Is anyone around to renew the lease? If so, who--or what? What does the land look like? How is it used? How has the rest of the world changed?"
Dec. 23, 1893 The Opera Hansel and Gretel, by Engelbert Humperdinck, premiered.
Dec. 28, 1895 The Lumiere brothers showed the
First Commercial Movie, in the Grand Cafe in Paris.
"Motion-picture pioneers: The French brothers Louis and Auguste Lumiere invented the Cinematographer, a machine that served as both motion-picture camera and projector. So for the first time, films could be viewed by audiences, rather than simply by individuals looking through peepholes, as with Edison's Kinetoscope. The Lumieres made scores of films, generally short records of daily life such as a train arriving at a station or a street scene. Let (the children) try their hands at Lumiere-style filmmaking. First, have them decide on a visually interesting subject to film for about 3 minutes. Next, have them think about where they'll position the camera. After each (child) has submitted its plans, (have them make their video. Hold a ... screening and discuss the young filmmakers' results."
Dec. 8, 1896 J. T. White invented the Lemon Squeezer.
"Lessons from lemons: Celebrate the invention of the lemon squeezer by writing the following phrase on the chalkboard: "When life gives you lemons, make lemonade." What personal stories do--and your (children)--have that illustrate how someone made the best of a bad situation?"
Dec. 26, 1898 Pierre and Marie Curie discovered Radium.
Dec. 12, 1899 George Grant received a patent for the Golf Tee.
Dec. 10, 1901 The First Nobel Prizes were awarded.
Dec. 12, 1901 Italian Inventor Guglielmo Marconi received the
First Transatlantic Radio Signal.
Dec. 27, 1901 Temperance agitator Carry Nation staged her first saloon raid.
Dec. 8, 1903 A Heavier-Than-Air Flying Machine, designed by engineer
Samuel Langley, crashed into the Potomac River.
"Success through failure: By experimenting with lift and drag, aeronautical engineer Samuel Langley built a successful heavier-than-air airplane model. Even though his full-size aircrafts failed to fly, Langley brought respect to the study of mechanical flight, previously an object of ridicule. Invite your (children) to fly paper airplanes in the (yard). Encourage them to hypothesize about why some models fly farther--or higher--than others."
Dec. 17, 1903 The Wright brothers made The First
Successful Airplane Flight, over Kitty Hawk, N.C.
"Flight fascination: Orville and Wilbur Wright's fascination with flight began with a planophore--a toy with a rubber band and a windup propeller. Twenty-five years later, Orville piloted the first engine-driven airplane. Use the Wright brothers' historic first flight as a starting point for a class time line about flight. Assign a (child) research team to each decade from 1903 to the present."
Dec. 27, 1904 The play Peter Pan was first performed.
Dec. 31, 1904 A New Year's Eve Tradition began as an illuminated
globe descended a pole atop the Times Tower in Times Square,
New York City.
Dec. 10, 1906 Theodore Roosevelt became the First U.S.
President to Receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
"Special honors: In honor of American Nobel Peace Prize recipients Theodore Roosevelt, Jane Addams, and Martin Luther King, Jr., have your (children) nominate (people who deserve recognition for their thoughtfulness. ... design a special citation for the winners."
Dec. 1, 1909 The First Christmas Club started in Carlisle, Pa.
Dec. 8, 1909 The American Bird Banding Association was formed.
"Strike up the band: Computers at the Bird Banding Laboratory in Laurel, Md., hold six decades of information on over 43 million banded birds. Banders catch birds in fine nets and keep them just long enough to record the band's identification number; the bird's species, age, and sex; the date of banding; and other interesting data. Even though only 3 percent of the bands are ever recovered, scientists can use the information to theorize about migration routes and schedules. Ask your (children) to name birds that migrate from their community in the fall. Which bird species remain throughout the winter?"
Dec. 21, 1909 The First Junior High School was established.
Dec. 14, 1910 Andrew Carnegie"s $10 million gift established
 The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
"Promoting peace: Major goals of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace were to encourage peaceful settlement of international disputes and to find practical ways of preventing war. What are some peaceful ways your (children) think it's so hard to get countries to settle disputes peacefully?"
Dec. 14, 1911 The Norwegian explorer Rould Amundsen became
the first person to reach the South Pool.
Dec. 1, 1913 The First Drive-in Automobile Service Station opened in
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Dec. 10, 1913 Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece, the Mona Lisa,
was recovered 2 years after it was stolen.
Dec. 23, 1913 The U.S. Federal Reserve System was established.
Dec. 21, 1913 The First Crossword Puzzle was published.
Dec. 2, 1916 Permanent all-over lighting of the Statue of Liberty began.
Dec. 1, 1918 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, later called
Yugoslavia, was formed
Dec. 11, 1919 The First Monument to an Insect was dedicated in
Enterprise, Ala., It honored the ball weevil, a destructive insect
that forced farmers to diversify their crops.
Dec. 1, 1922 Captain Cyril Turner of the Royal Air Force became the
First Pilot to Skywrite in the United States.
Dec. 16, 1922 Florence Allen of Ohio became the
First Woman Justice of a State Supreme Court.
Dec. 30, 1922 The Soviet Union was formed.
Dec. 31, 1923 The Chimes of Big Ben were first broadcast on the radio.
Dec. 6, 1924 The U.S Border Patrol was founded.
Dec. 12, 1925 The First Motel, Motel Inn, opened in San Luis Obispo, Calif.
Dec. 9, 1926 The First National Christmas Tree Service took place in
Kings Canyon National Park in California.
"Sizable circumference: President Calvin Coolidge designated a 2,000-year-old giant sequoia called the General Grant the first national Christmas tree. This 267 foot colossus has a circumference at its base of 107.5 feet. Have (you and your children) measure 107.5 feet of string and form it into a circle."
Dec. 13, 1927 Yehudi Menuhin, a 10-year-old Violinist, made
his debut at a concert in Carnegie Hall. After his performance,
he asked for a dish of Ice cream.
"Special moments; Observe Yehudi Menuhin's achievement by asking your (children) how they would celebrate a special feat or event. Would they ask for ice cream, as Yehudi did?"
Dec. 14, 1929 Amelia Earhart formed an organization for Licensed Female Pilots.
Dec. 25, 1930 The First Public Bobsled Run opened in Lake Placid,, N.Y.
Dec. 10, 1931 Jane Addams became the First American
Woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
Dec. 27, 1932 Radio City Music Hall, the world's largest
indoor theater, opened in New York City.
Dec. 17, 1933 The Chicago Bears won Football's First
World Championship, defeating the New York Giants, 23-21.
Each player on the winning team received $210.
Dec. 31, 1935 The Parker brothers received a patent for their game Monopoly.
Dec. 18, 1936 Su Lin became The First Giant Panda to Arrive in the United States.
"Welcome, Su Lin: Have your students list special habitat considerations they think zookeepers had to keep in mind for Su Lin, the giant panda."
Dec. 21, 1937 Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,
the First Full-Length Animated Film, premiered in Los Angeles.
Dec. 22, 1937 The Lincoln Tunnel, which connects New York and
New Jersey under the Hudson River, opened.
Dec. 15, 1938 Ground was broken for the Jefferson Memorial.
Dec. 22, 1939 A goelacanth, a fish Thought to be Extinct for
65 Million Years, was caught  off the coast of South Africa.
Dec. 30, 1940 Los Angeles dedicated its First Freeway.
Dec. 6, 1941 President Franklin Roosevelt made a Personal Appeal for
Peace to Japan's Emperor Hirohito. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the next day.
Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor was Attacked by the Japanese.
"A date which will live in infamy": Just 3 hours before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the U.S. army's chief of staff received an intercepted message that an attack would occur somewhere in the Pacific. He notified Manila, the Panama Canal Zone, and San Francisko, but atmospheric conditions prevented him from getting the message to Hawaii. Ask your (children) to illustrate how today's messages are sent and received."
Dec, 8, 1941 The United States Declared War on Japan.
Dec. 11, 1941 Germany and Italy Declared War on the United States.
Dec. 2, 1942 The Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and his associates produced
the First Sustained Nuclear Chain Reaction.
Dec. 28, 1942 Robert Sullivan became the First Pilot to Make
100 Flights Across the Atlantic.
Dec. 7, 1945 Percy Le Baron Spencer patented the Microwave Oven.
Dec. 4, 1945 Congress approved U.S. participation in the United Nations.
Dec. 28, 1945 Congress officially recognized the "Pledge of Allegiance.
"A closer look at the pledge: Ask your (children) to write the "Pledge of Allegiance," underlining the five words they believe are the most important. Have the kids define the words and explain why they chose them. Then ask (them) to pictographs of the pledge using symbols and as few letters or words as possible. Display the results ... ."
Dec. 11, 1946 The United Nation General Assembly established
UNICEF, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.
Dec. 11, 1946 Industrialist John D. Rockefeller, Jr., donated land
for the United Nations' World Headquarters.
"A donation to the World: When the United Nations selected New York City as the location for its permanent headquarters, delegates met in hotel rooms and college halls for lack of a headquarters building. But Rockefeller's donation of a six-block tract along the east River solved this problem. The UN Headquarters, designed by architects from 11 countries, is one of New York's famous landmarks. Ask your (children) to name noteworthy structures in your community. What makes them memorable or special? Distribute a map of the United States and have the kids locate and label other human-built landmarks, such as the Gateway Arch, the Mormon Tabernacle, Epcot Center, Hoover Dam, the Sears Tower, Independence Hall, and Mount Rushmore."
Dec. 31, 1946 President Harry Truman officially proclaimed
the End of World War II.
Dec. 26, 1947 Almost 29 inches of Snow fell in New York City.
Dec. 23, 1948 The Transistor was invented by
John Bordeen and Walter Brattain.
Dec. 24, 1948 The First Totally Solar-Heated Home was
completed in Dover, Mass.
Dec. 12, 1953 Major Chuck Yeager flew a Bell X-1A j
et 2.5 Times the Speed of Sound.
Dec. 16, 1953 The Delaware Water Gap Bridge between
Pennsylvania and New Jersey opened.
Dec. 1, 1955 Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, ALA., for
refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man. The incident helped
spark the civil rights movement.
"Civil-rights pioneer: In Montgomery, Ala., black bus passengers were required by law to give up their seats and move to the back of the bus if white passengers wanted a seat. When Rosa Parks refused to do this, she was arrested, jailed,and fined. The incident led to a prolonged boycott of city buses and ultimately to a Supreme Court decision declaring racial segregation on buses unconstitutional. Have your (children) write a journal entry about standing up for what is right. What might the consequences be if the stand is unpopular? Could friend ships be lost? In what ways could life be more difficult? Some students might be able to draw on personal experience."
Dec. 5, 1955 African-Americans in Montgomery, Ala., began a Boycott of
City Buses to protest racial segregation.
Dec. 18, 1956 Japan Joined the United Nations.
Dec. 22, 1956 Colo became the First Gorilla Born in Captivity.
"Grow, gorilla, grow: Tell your (children) that the gorilla and the chimpanzee are the closest living relatives of man. Have them compare the gorilla's weight--at the following stages--with a human's:
Birth:4-5 pounds
Age 2" 35 pounds
Adult female:200-250 pounds
Adult male in captivity:600-700 pounds"
Dec. 18, 1957 The First Commercial Nuclear Power Plant in the
United States began supplying electricity to Shippingport, Pa.
Dec. 19, 1959 Walter Williams, The Last Civil War Veteran,
died at the age of 117.
Dec. 9, 1960 The Sperry Rand Corporation introduced
Univac 1107, the First Computer to Operate in Nanoseconds.
Dec. 5, 1962 The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to the
Peaceful Use of Outer Space.
Dec. 30, 1963 The John F. Kennedy Half-Dollar was authorized by Congress.
Dec. 10, 1964 Martin Luther King, Jr., received the Nobel Peace Prize.
Dec. 9, 1965 A Charlie Brown Christmas became the first "Peanuts" TV show.
Dec. 3, 1967 Dr. Christiaan Barnard performed the first human heart transplant.
Dec. 14, 1967 DNA was created in a test tube.
Dec. 29, 1967 The term Black Hole--for a region in space left by a star
that undergoes complete gravitational collapse--was first used.
Dec. 7, 1968 A Library Book Overdue for 145 years was returned to the
University of Cincinnati Library. The $22,646 fine was waived.
Dec. 21, 1968 Apollo 8 blasted off. The mission would mark the
first time anyone had seen the Dark side of the Moon.
Dec. 24, 1968 The Apollo 8 Astronauts Broadcast a
Christmas Message while orbiting the moon.
Dec. 15, 1969 The Oldest Fossilized Flea on record was
discovered in Australia.
"Some hopper!: Fleas are arguably the best jumpers in the world: They can leap 12 inches, or 150 times their height would take them. Fleas live on the blood of host mammals. They use their antennae to sense heat, vibrations, air currents, and carbon dioxide--which signal the presence of a nearby host. Fleas themselves are also hosts--for mites which live between the plates of their exoskeletons. Ask your (children) to research and illustrate other host-parasite relationships."
Dec. 17, 1969 A 21-Year Study of UFOs ended with no conclusions.
Dec. 7, 1970 American cartoonist Rube Goldberg died.
"Zany inventions: Rube Goldberg is known for his humorous cartoons, especially those depicting wacky and complicated inventions that turn even the simplest task into a mind-boggling production. For example, a Rube Goldberg mousetrap might work like this: 1. mouse comes out of hiding for sandwich left on counter; 2. mouse follows line of bread crumbs; 3. mouse walks into path of fan and is blown across counter; 4. mouse lands inside false teeth, which clamp shut; 5. closing teeth pull a string, which tilts water can to drown mouse. Invite your (children) to draw their own Rube Goldberg inventions."
Dec. 15, 1970 The USSR's Venera 7 became the
First Spacecraft to Land on Venus.
Dec. 11, 1972 Apollo 17 Landed on the Moon.
Dec. 19, 1972 Apollo 17, the sixth and Last Manned Moon
Landing Mission, ended with a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.
"Moonstruck: The Moon has inspired writers and storytellers since ancient times. William Shakespeare compared the moon to "a silver bow new-bent in heaven." Ask your (children) how the moon and a silver bow are alike. Invite them to write a metaphor about the moon in their journals." (Grandma would also like you to do some research about that moon trip and some possible information hidden. I believe it is in Youtube which you may already have watched and are knowledgeable about.)
Dec. 31, 1972 Baseball Star Roberto Clemente was killed in an airplane
crash while aiding Nicaraguan earthquake victims.
Dec. 31, 1972 The pesticide DDT was Banned in the United States.
Dec. 3, 1973 Pioneer 10 made the First Flyby of Jupiter and transmitted
close-up pictures to Earth.
"Flyby: Pioneer 10 was traveling thousands of miles per hour as it sped past Jupiter. Even though the encounter was brief, scientists learned much from the data the spacecraft collected. Have your (children) participate in an information-seeking "flyby." Gather enough photos or posters of interesting subjects ... to "flyby" one picture. Have the kids ... list as many things as they can about what they saw. Then place all the photos or posters on ...display for viewing. Ask each (child) to read his description while the class looks for the picture it matches."
Dec. 6, 1973 Gerald Ford, a longtime congressman from Michigan, was
sworn in as vice president of the United States, replacing Spiro Agnew.
Dec. 22, 1973 The First Endangered Species Act was passed.
"Extinct is forever: Some species become extinct as a result of natural selection. But in other cases, man has disrupted natural cycles by destroying habitats, overkilling, and introducing exotic species. Scientists believe that by the year 2000, species may be going extinct at a rate of 100 per day. Can your (children) name some endangered plants or animals in their area? Invite them to make posters of these species."
Dec. 29, 1973 Skylab 4 took the First Photographs from Space of a Comet.
Dec. 16, 1974 The Safe Drinking Water Act became law.
Dec. 29, 1976 Lynn Cox became the First Person to Swim the Strait of Magellan.
Dec. 8, 1979 A cat named Sherry was reunited with her owners after
she spent 32 days and Traveled 225,000 Miles In the Hold of an Airliner.
Dec. 2, 1980 The Alaska Lands Act was signed by President Jimmy Carter.
"This land is your land: The Alaska Lands Act set aside more than 150 million acres--a total area larger than California and Minnesota combined--for parks, wildlife refuges, and conservation areas. Have (the children) use an atlas to locate some of the 26 Alaskan rivers added to the National Wild and scenic Rivers System by this law. They'll delight in such interesting names as Aniakchak, Salmon, Tlikakila, Selawick, Wind, Fortymile, and Unalakleet."
Dec. 2, 1982 Barney Clark received the First Permanent Artificial Heart.
Dec. 19, 1984 Wayne Gretzky scored his 1,000th point in his
632nd professional hockey game.
"The great Gretzky: Hockey star Wayne Gretzky was the youngest player, at 19, to receive the National Hockey League's Most Valuable Player award. What are some goals your students would like to achieve by the time they're 19? How will they do it?"
Dec. 23, 1986 The experimental aircraft Voyager completed
The First Nonstop, Unrefueled Flight Around the World.
"A well-traveled paper airplane: The lightweight experimental aircraft Voyager made aviation history by completing a nonstop, unrefueled journey around the world. The plane covered the 25,012-mile distance in 9 days. Pilots Jeana Yeager and Dick Rutan were a bit wobbly after their landing--after all, the cockpit, they'd traveled in was the size of the backseat of an automobile. Voyager is a giant paper airplane made of layers of honeycomb paper and graphite sealed with epoxy resin. Ask your (children) to draw their own designs for an airliner, military aircraft, or recreational plane of the future."
Dec. 3, 1987 King Kong welcomed the two millionth visitor of the year
 to the Empire State Building:
Dec. 21, 1987 Penny-saver Warren Holdread Bought a New Car Using Pennies.
"A penny saved: When Warren Holdread purchased a new car, he brought his pennies with him--all 284,500 of them. (He also brought his checkbook so he could make up any difference.) For many years, Holdread had been tossing pennies into a 55-gallon drum in his garage. The dealer who sold Holdread the car said the penny collection was fun, but it cut into his profits. Wrapping pennies costs 3 1/4¢ per roll of 50. Have your (children) use their calculators to figure out how much of a possible $1,300 profit was lost because of the pennies."
Dec. 29, 1987 Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko
completed A 326-Day Stay in Space.
"All alone; Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko spent close to 11 months aboard Mir, an orbiting space station. Counting his other two missions, he was in space longer than anyone--430 days. With an eye to future long space missions, scientists have been studying Romanenko closely They're concerned about the effect of weightlessness on the body and the psychological consequences of months of relative isolation. Ask your (children) what they would miss the most if they were in space for 11 months. What would they take with them to make their spacecraft feel more like home?" (We will be getting some information wherever we can to see how far they have come from this expedition.)
Dec. 7, 1988 An Earthquake registering 6.9 on the Richter
scale leveled the city of Spitak, Armenia.
Dec. 20, 1988 Teddy Andrews, age 7, was sworn in as
Youth Commissioner for the city of Berkeley, Calif.
"Lending a helping hand: After campaigning for an incumbent city councilman, 7-year-old Teddy Andrews was appointed to Berkeley's Youth Commission, a board that advises the city council on youth issues. Once in office, he developed a "wish list"--a plan to provide clothing, school supplies, and even scholarships to homeless and needy children. Ask your (children) what their wish list would include."
Dec. 22, 1988 In Barry County, Mich., Police Cars and Ambulances
started Carrying Teddy Bears to comfort Young passengers.
"Fluffy stress-reducer: Ask your (children)  to bring (out) the stuffed animal or toy that makes them feel better when they're sad or sick or just need a friend. ...  Then ask the children to think of ways they might be able to help kids who've been traumatized. Perhaps they can raise money to buy stuffed toys for youngsters brought to the emergency room of a nearby hospital. (used stores sell them cheap or garage sales, spray with a disinfectant or wash them.)
Dec. 15, 1989 London's Big Ben was silenced for 3 hours
because of faulty cogwheels.
"London landmark: Many people think Big Ben is the 22-foot-diameter clock on the clock tower of England's Houses of parliament. But it's actually the clock tower's 13.5-ton bell. Big Ben chimes every 15 minutes--and has with few exceptions, since its installation in 1859. Test your (childrens') knowledge of other famous landmarks--and have some fun--by holding a..."Password" tournament. For the passwords, use such famous landmarks as the Taj Mahal, the Sphinx, the Great Wall of China, and the Eiffel Tower. Have two-persons...(clue giver and clue receiver) ... . Remind the kids that clues must be one word only and must not contain any form of any word in the landmark. Locations, however, are acceptable clues."
Dec. 20, 1989 Renovations of the Sistine Chapel in Rome were completed.
Dec. 4, 1990 A Cockatiel Named Coco helped "bow the whistle" on a burglar.
"Critter crimebuster: A burglar broke into a home in Fort Walton, Fla., and stole electronic equipment, cash, and a cockatiel named Coco. The burglar left the squawking bird in a nearby shop. When a local police officer entered the shop, the bird started whistling a TV theme song, and the officer recalled a burglary report mentioning a bird with this special talent. Thanks to Coco, the burglar was arrested. Invite your fledgling authors to compose a script for a new TV show--"Top Critter Cops." How might animals help solve other crimes?"
Dec. 14, 1990 Magic Johnson, Chris Evert, and Jackie Joyner-Kersee
joined the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

Day 177

Posted on May 28, 2014 at 11:32 PM Comments comments (16)
Good Morning Folks! On this blog Grandma will put October activities for the 1800's and 1900' on this blog.
"Confounded collectors: Tell your (children) these unusual words for collectors of different things: deltiologist (postcards), numismatist (coins), comiconomen-caricaturist (funny names of people, bibliophile (books). Have (the children) investigate the root words for these terms. Next, ask them what they collect. Is there a special term for people with those collections? If no, what words can your (children) make up? For example, how about "fluffacritterologist" for the person who collects stuffed animals? (what about rock collectors)
Variations on a theme park: Disney World boasts many special areas, called "lands," where all the rides, attractions, and characters follow a theme. These areas include Fantasy land, Frontier land, and Tomorrow land. What new "lands" would your students want to include? How about "Retro land," with a back -in-time theme? or "Computor land," where computers do everything? Invite the kids to draw and write about their suggested new "land."
Honors to Mrs. Mallard: Robert McCloskey spent months studying ducks--even sharing his apartment and bathtub with them. The result was his award-winning picture book Make Way for Ducklings. A bronze sculpture commemorating Mrs. Mallard and her eight ducklings can be seen at the Boston Public Garden. What suggestions do your students have for commemorating their favorite animal stories?
Savers: During the first presidential telecast from the White House, President Truman asked Americans to reduce their consumption of meat, eggs, and poultry-- to build up stockpiles of grain for war-ravaged Europe. Have your (children) think of an item or items that they could "do without" for a day to help a cause. Perhaps you could include other classrooms in a plan to designate one day each month as do-Without-for-a-Cause Day.
The world's greatest inventor: Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope projected a clearer, steadier image than other projectors and screen devices. During his lifetime, Edison developed an incredible number of inventions. Have your (children) graph his contributions according to the following categories: electronic light and power, 389; phonograph, 195; telegraph, 150; storage battery and related items, 141; ore separation, 62; telephone, 62; railroad, 26; motion pictures, 9; automobile, 8; mimeograph, 6; typewriter, 3.
Movie first: The Jazz Singer, called the first talking motion picture, was actually more silent than talking. Al Jolson, a popular singer who was the movie's star, belted out three songs and spoke the words "You ain't heard nothin' yet, folks," giving the film a total of 291 spoken words. The rest of the film was silent with captions. The first all talking movie, The Lights of New York, came out the following year, 1928.
Tell your (children) that when The Jazz Singer premiered, some people predicted that talking pictures would never succeed. Similar views have been expressed about the automobile, the computer, and the automatic teller machine. Lead a discussion on why people often turn away from new ideas and technologies. Ask your (children) to list things that they believe won't become an accepted part of our culture.
Rosy pick: Before the rose was selected as the national flower, 70 bills proposing other flowers were introduced. How do your (children) feel about the choice of the rose? What flowers would they have suggested, and why? Have them prepare a brief informational report, with an illustration, for their nominations. Take a vote.
Fire stoppers: The Great Chicago Fire destroyed 18,000 buildings and left 100,000 people homeless. Have your (children) identify potential fire hazards in their home ... . If any students don't have the local fire department's number on their home phone, have them write it on a self-adhesive label ... , and put it there.
Fairy tales, opera style: Tell your (children) that an opera is a story told in song. Then play some of Engelbert Humperdinck's opera Hansel and Gretel. Have the kids select a favorite fairy tale or story and divide the plot into three acts. Challenge them to select popular music that would be appropriate for the plot, rewriting the lyrics if they want. Then they could perform the fairy tale as a puppet show for younger students.
A Perfect day: In 1956 Don Larsen realized a baseball pitcher's ultimate dream when he pitched a perfect game. Invite your (children) to describe their perfect day. For some, this "day in the sun" might already have happened. For others, it might be a cherished dream.
More than Money: In 1843 Charles Dickens found himself desperate for money. He needed to produce a book that would be a quick and sure success, so he lifted a subplot from his already-published novel The Pickwick Papers and called it A Christmas Carol. But Dickens fell in love with his story. Despite his financial straits, he priced the book as cheaply as possible so more readers could buy it. Ask your (children) to write about a situation that produced a change of heart in them.
To fingerprint or not to fingerprint: Fingerprinting has been around  for at least 3,000 years. The ancient Chinese used fingerprints as official seals on documents. More recently, law-enforcement agencies have used fingerprinting to identify crime suspects. Your (children) may be aware of an even-newer trend: Certain local police departments, parent groups, clubs, and schools have begun fingerprinting children to help locate these children should they become missing. Some people feel this is a violation of children's civil rights, especially if the prints are controlled by an official agency. What do your (children) think? Have them list pros and cons--and alternatives.
Costume Party: Instead of wearing the traditional white tie and dress coat with tails, Griswold Lorillard wore a tailless jacket and a scarlet satin vest to a ball in Tuxedo Park, N.Y. This new look was dubbed the tuxedo. Ask your (children) to think of an outfit they'd like to rent for a day. It might be a suit of armor, a clown's costume, a spacesuit, scuba gear, or a fire fighter's uniform. Have each child explain the reason for his selection in this journal.
In the bag: Years ago, the bicycle was an important mode of travel. For this reason, the luggage carrier, designed especially for use with bikes, was quite popular. Have each student sketch the outline of a piece of luggage and inside draw four items a favorite book character might pack. Divide the class into groups, and have group members take turns showing their drawings while the others guess who would carry the luggage.
Famous First Lady: In This Is My Story, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote, "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent." Ask your (children) what she meant by that remark. Can your (children) remember when someone damaged their self-confidence or tried to put them down? How did they feel, and what did they do about it?
As a young girl, Eleanor Roosevelt was extremely shy. When have your (children) felt that way? What did they do to overcome their shyness? (Grandma can partially agree with Eleanor. Grandma believes she was a very famous woman and found ways to hold strong but she says these things in her books to keep children and adults from feeling bad or low, but it is awfully hard for some children to come to these conclusions when they are young and don't know these words spoken by Eleanor. They can go into life feeling they were unworthy and still are to society especially if  they are a little more enthusiastic than the down trodders about them. They let their own guard down when they didn't even know what their guards were.Some people have a harder time dealing with their emotions than others also. In all reality the people or children putting others down are those that hold there own emotions as a sword to downtrodden the world.)
Home of the bard: The Globe Theater, the largest open-air theater in London, held about 2,500 people. Shakespeare's plays appealed to a diverse audience, so the theater was built to accommodate members of the upper and lower classes. Ordinary people stood in the "pit" area below the stage, while the wealthy sat in tiered galleries. Do your (children) think they live in a society that has a class system? Why or why not.
New perspective: Have your (children) pretend they're in a balloon hovering above the (house). What would the building look like? What about the shrubs and trees? The jungle gym and swings? Students at play during recess? Challenge the kids to draw an aerial view of the school. Then have them discuss their illustrations in small groups.
Nicknames: Theodore Roosevelt had many nicknames, including Bull Moose, Driving Force, Dynamo of Power, Four eyes, Man on Horseback, Old Lion, T.R., Hero of San Juan Hill, and Meddler. Challenge your (children) to find out the origins of these nicknames. Then invite them to share the stories behind their nicknames.
Pooh party!: Celebrate the debut of Winnie the Pooh with a theme party. Invite your kids to make  Pooh-related decorations. Encourage them to bring a stuffed Pooh character or a favorite stuffed animal dressed like pooh or one of his friends from the Hundred Acre Wood. Read one of the Pooh stories while your (children) enjoy a special snack, such as Kanga Kupcakes or Piglet's Popcorn. How about Pooh's honey.
Up and Away: Major Charles E. Yeager became the first person to travel faster than the speed of sound (Oct. 14, 1947). His flight, at an altitude of 43,000 feet above sea level, was clocked at 700 mph. How does that speed compare with the speed of a jogger, a bicycle rider, and Indy 500 race car, and a charging rhinoceros? Tell your (children) that the first time Yeager flew, he got very sick. But he loved the feel of flight so much that he forced himself to overcome this sensitivity. Did any of your (children) keep plugging away at something until they got better at it? Invite them to share their personal stories.
Balloon ride: Ask your (children) to find out the difference between a hot-air balloon and a dirigible. (A dirigible has a hard internal framework and is kept aloft by lighter-than-air gases, whereas a hot-air balloon relies on heated air and does not have an infrastructure.)
Trillion tickler(based on a discovery of a solar system to be 293 trillion miles from earth Oct. 15, 1984): Here's how to make 293 trillion more comprehensible to your (children). Have them use calculators to determine their approximate age in days, then in hours, then in minutes. When they figure out their age in seconds, they'll be working with numbers in the hundreds of millions! challenge them to figure out how many years old they'd be at one trillion seconds. (319.7.) Can anyone figure out how many round trips to the sun would equal 293 trillion miles? (5,376 trips) For younger students, pass out 12 large zeros plus a one and have them line up to form one trillion.
Big birds: You'd expect to find ostriches--the world's largest living birds--in Africa, but how about in Oklahoma? (In the Okie Ostrich Ranch of Marlow, Okla. opened Oct. 15, 1986) When profits from traditional farm products such as cattle and wheat dropped, some ranchers in southern Oklahoma turned to a new industry--ostriches. Getting started isn't cheap; people have spent up to $10,000 for one breeding pair. Ostrich meat tastes like a combination of pork and turkey, and ostrich hide is used to make boots, gloves, and purses. Do your (children) believe that ostriches really stick their heads in sand? Ask them to list other animal myths.
Helping hands: Mother Teresa's religious order, the Missionaries of Charity, provides food, shelter, and medical care for the needy in about 30 countries. Ask the kids to comment on the saying "Charity begins at home." What are some suggestions they have for helping the less fortunate of their community?(Based on her award of the Nobel Peace Prize Oct. 17, 1979.)
Women's rights advocate: Even as a young girl, Lucy Stone was ware of the unequal status of women. When she married Henry Blackwell in 1858, she became the first woman to keep her maiden name. Nowadays, many women chose not to use their husband's last name. They're called "lucy stoners." Can your (children) think of other common nouns based on personal names?
Mr. October et al: Reggie Jackson was called Mr. October. Ask your (children) why this nickname was appropriate. Then have them think of other baseball players' nicknames--for example the Sultan of Swat (Babe Ruth), the Say Hey Kid (Willie Mays), the splendid splinter (Ted Williams), the Iron Horse (Lou Gehrig). Have the kids draw a picture that illustrates a baseball nickname literally. For example, an illustration o Dwight Gooden's nickname, Dr. K, might show the letter K adorned with a stethoscope and surgical mask.
Child adviser: While campaigning for the presidency, Abraham Lincoln received baskets of mail every day. And he took the advice of 11-year-old Grace Bedell, whose letter suggested that he grow a beard because "Your face is so thin" and "the ladies like whiskers." After the election, Lincoln stopped in Westfield, N.Y. to meet his young adviser. Ask your (children) why Lincoln is such a recognizable president. Which other presidents are physically distinctive? Then compare political cartoons with photos of today's leaders. How do the cartoonists make their subjects so recognizable?
Rocket Man: When Robert Goddard was a boy, he'd climb an oak tree at night, look at the moon, and imagine he could travel there on a rocket. His imagination was fired by two of H.G. Wells's books, First Men on the Moon and War of the Worlds, which were filled with imaginative predictions of space travel. Invite your (children) to share book titles and stories that have fired their imaginations.
Museum in the round: Architect Frank Lloyd Wright used right angles in most of his building designs, but he was in a "circular mood" when he planned the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Wright's finished design looked like a giant spiral sculpture. Show your (children) a picture of the Goggenheim Museum. Tell them that some people call the building a "giant snail," whereas others think it's "the most beautiful building in New York." How do your (children) feel? What other buildings or structures do they think of as giant works of art?
Copy king: As a law student, Chester Carlson spent hours copying information from library books. And he worked in a patent office, where making multiple copies of patents was a laborious task. To find an easier way to get copies, he built his own laboratory and developed xerography. Years after investing in Carlson's process, the Haloid Company changed its name to Xerox Corporation. The corporation is proud of its name and history and objects when people use "xerox" as a synonym for "photocopy." How do your (children) feel about Xerox's point of view? Can they think of other trade names--such as Kleenex and Plexiglas--that are misused as common nouns?
First flying female: Seven years after the Wright brothers flew a heavier-than-air machine, Blanche Scott became the first woman to fly solo. She later became the first woman test pilot. Blanche Scott, entered a field that had been "for Men only" Today, women pursue a wide range of careers in aviation. Ask your (children) to list these careers. What jobs are still for men only or women only?
A right for all: From colonial times on, groups of women worked to gain the right to vote, often in the face of great opposition. Why, do your (children) think, were some men opposed? And why were some women opposed? Invite your (children) to pretend they've joined the "march for suffrage." Have them design a poster they could carry, compose a song they could sing, or write a slogan they could shout as they march.
Fall gal: Annie Edson Taylor wanted to prove how daring she could be. She placed a 100-pound blacksmith's anvil (for ballast) at the bottom of a wood barrel and squeezed herself inside. Attendants packed pillows around her, screwed the lid on tight, and pushed the barrel toward Niagara Falls. The barrel plummeted 158 feet straight down and disappeared beneath the turbulent water. It finally popped up hundreds of yards below the falls. When rescuers recovered her, Taylor said, "Nobody ought ever to do that again." Have your (children) figure out how many desks they'd need to stack to match the distance of Taylor's fall. As a special challenge, give (your children)  a paper bag and a raw egg. Have them devise a way to prevent the egg from breaking in a fall. Test their ideas by dropping their inventions from various heights. (Discuss why Annie Taylor said what she did in the end. Discuss what she may have gone through during that fall to feel that way.)
Bitten by the love bug: A bull moose in Vermont spent over 10 weeks following a Hereford cow named Jessica. Thousands of sightseers watched the moose woo and nuzzle its bovine sweetheart. Tell your (children) that a moose in the woods is well camouflaged: Its legs blend with the tree trunks; its brown body fades into the shadows; and its antlers look like branches. Ask your (children) to draw other animals that rely on camouflage. (Also have the children do some research to see if this kind of a phenomena can happen often and what the outcome could be.)
Backbreaker: The Erie Canal was completed after 8 years of construction. Using wheelbarrows, shovels, and other hand tools, the crew dug a ditch 4 feet deep, 40 feet wide at ground level, and 28 feet wide at the base. Eighty-three locks were built to enable ships to make the climb from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. Have your (children)use a map scale in their atlas to figure out the length of the canal, which runs from Albany to Buffalo, N.Y.
Class charity: Raise money for a Red Cross charity by holding a used-toy sale. Ask your (children) to collect old toys, and arrange them by price--25¢, 50¢, $1, and so on. ... make posters advertising the event, send invitations, produce a video about the event and its purpose, and speak about the event ....
Book math: After outgrowing its 88 miles of stacks, the New York Public Library began building an underground extension. Books stored there will be brought to the main library when needed. The extension, which will hold 3.2 million books, should fill up fast because the library acquires over 150,000 books each year. Ask your (children) to estimate the number of books in their library. Collect enough books to make a stack 1 meter high. Then have the kids use this information to estimate how many meters high all the books in their library stacked together would reach. Can your (children) think of other ways to solve this problem? Ask your librarian to check your class's estimate.
Determined record-breaker: Pole-sitter Melissa Sanders was determined to raise $100,000 for cancer research. Her sister Rebecca was a cancer patient. Tell your (children) that Melissa's pole-top "home," which was a 42-square-foot box, included a telephone, a television, and a small plastic pool for baths. Ask your (children) what they would take with them if they were attempting to break Melissa's record. Have them use grid paper to determine some possible shapes for a 42-square-foot "home." (42-square feet is still quite a bit of space.)
Masses welcome: The sonnet "The New Colossus," by Emma Lazarus, is inscribed on a bronze plaque inside the Statue of Liberty's pedestal. Read it to your students, then have them write their own inscriptions for the Statue of Liberty in their journals. (This would be a good time to talk about the Statue of Liberty and where it came from.)
Peeking at prints: Try some dactyloscopy (fingerprinting) with your class. Have your (children) rub a sharpened #2 pencil on a piece of paper until they've produced a dark, shiny patch. Next, they should lightly rub their index finger over the patch, then cover that finger with a piece of clear adhesive tape. Place the tape on an index card or on an overhead transparency. Have your (children) compare fingerprints and make observations. Tell them that a police computer can examine over 600 prints per second. How many is that per minute? Per hour?
Cloud capers: Throughout history, people have tried to change the weather. They've chanted, danced, and even fired rockets. Modern technology has enabled scientists to modify the weather somewhat. With cloud seeding, dry ice or silver iodide is added to very cold clouds to promote the formation of ice crystals.This method can clear fog over airports and increase precipitation by up to 30 percent in certain circumstances. Ask (the children) to illustrate other ways humans have successfully dealt with the weather (heaters, air conditioners, humidifiers, irrigation systems, landscaping techniques).
Next , follow this simple procedure to create a cloud for your (children). Pour about an inch of very hot water into a large glass jar. Then fill a metal cake pan with ice cubes and place it on top of the jar. Take the jar into a darkened room and shine a flashlight on it. Your (children) will see a small cloud and, if they're observant, drops of precipitation on the bottom of the pan.
Power of the pen: As a journal assignment, have your (children) compare and contrast a fountain pen and a ballpoint pen. ...Encourage the kids to write a letter--from the fountain pen's perspective--describing its feelings about being obsolete. What do your (children) own that might be obsolete by the time they're adults?
Black Hills stone faces: Sculptor Gutzon Borglum needed to select four presidents to memorialize on Mount Rushmore. He looked for leaders who practiced the ideal "Man has a right to be free and to be happy." His first three choices--Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln--were obvious. For the fourth, President Calvin Coolidge suggested Theodore Roosevelt, who, he believed, had established the United States as an industrial giant with a backbone of dedicated workers. With this endorsement, Borglum's group was complete. Have your (children) nominate and vote on four present-day leaders they'd memorialize on a Rushmore-like monument.
Kid power: On Halloween morning in 1987, the pickup truck driven by Rocky Lyonns's mother hit a pothole. It flipped over and rolled down an embankment. Five-year-old Rocky pushed his dazed mother out of the truck. She'd sustained bad cuts on her face and two broken shoulders. With Rocky pushing his mother from behind, the two began to crawl up the embankment. Rocky's mother didn't think she could make it, but the boy kept repeating a line from The Little Engine That Could: "I think I can, I think I can." Once they reached the road, a truck driver stopped and took them to the hospital. Have the famous words "I think I can" ever gotten your (children) through a tough situation?"

Day 171

Posted on May 23, 2014 at 12:44 PM Comments comments (30)
Good Morning! Grandma is typing up May 23 of the Calendar History here and the experiments on Light from Book (12). Grandma forgot to mention that she will be typing up some more experiments for the Summer and Her Books she is using on separate blogs as well as finishing the material from Patricia. Look for it later into next week. For now we will finish these experiments and the school season history.
May 23 1707 Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist and founder taxonomy, was born. Book (1) says under Plant classifications, "Have your (children) look up the word taxonomy in the dictionary. Then encourage them to walk through their (neighborhood) to observe flowering plants, writing careful notes of the specimens they find. Have them use these observational records and their research skills to find the scientific names of their plants.(see if they are edible and good for what things)
In 1734 Dr. Franz Mesmer, German physician who developed a treatment called mesmerism, which is the basis of the word mesmerize, was born. In 1824 Ambrose Everett Burnside, American Civil War general whose whiskers on the side of his were called Burnsides and later sideburns, was born. Then in 1910 Margaret Wise Brown, children's author, was born. Book (1) says, "Margaret Wise Brown wrote stories about feeling lonesome, getting lost, and acting naughty or silly. She wrote more than 100 books in her career, some published under the pen names Golden MacDonald, Timothy Hay, and Juniper Sage. Have your (children) each write a story using one of the topics Brown often wrote about. Then have them choose their own pen names. Why did they select a particular name?
The events start with 1785 In a letter, Benjamin Franklin wrote about his new invention, Bifocal Eyeglasses. In 1788 South Carolina became the eighth state. In 1873 Canada established the Northwest Mounted Police.
In 1903 Eleven-year-old William Frederick Price became the Youngest soldier to enlist in the British Army in this century. In 1984 C. Everett Koop, the U.S. surgeon general, said there was solid evidence that Nonsmokers can suffer Long Damage from Inhaling Other People's Cigarette Smoke. In 1989 An Italian interior designer named Stefania Follini Climbed out of the Cave in Carlsbad, N.M., in which she had spent the previous 130 days.
We will finish the line for May starting Monday. I may get it to you sooner.
The experiments on Light from Book (12) are as follows:
Pinhole Camera
Bore a hole in the middle of the base of a box. Stretch parchment paper over the mouth of the box and secure it with a rubber band. If you focus this simple camera on a brightly lit building from a dark room, the image appears upside down on the screen.
Our eyes work on the same principle. The light rays fall through the pupil and lens and project an inverted image on the retina. The image is turned the right way up again in the sight center of the brain.
Drop microscope
Bore a hole about one fifth of an inch wide in a strip of metal and smooth the edges. Bend the metal so that you can fix it with adhesive tape half an inch above the bottom of a thin glass. A pocket mirror is placed inside on a cork, so that it is on a slant. If you dab a drop of water into the hole, you can see small living organisms and other things through it, magnified by up to fifty times.
The drop magnifies like a convex lens. When you bring your eye near to it the sharpness can be adjusted by bending the metal inwards. The angle of the mirror is adjusted automatically by moving the glass.
Fire through ice
You would hardly believe it, but you can light a fire with ice! Pour some water which you have previously boiled for several minutes into a symmetrically curved bowl, and freeze it. You can remove the ice by heating slightly. You can concentrate the sun's rays with the ice as you would with a magnifying glass and set thin black paper alight, for instance.
The air in fresh water forms tiny bubbles on freezing and makes the ice cloudy. But only cooled imperceptibly when they pass through the ice.
Shortened spoon
Look from just above the rim of a bucket of water, and dip a spoon upright into it. The spoon seems to be considerably shorter under the water.
This illusion is based on the fact that the light rays reflected from the immersed spoon do not travel in a straight line to your eyes. They are bent at an angle at the surface of the water, so that you see the end of the spoon higher up. Water always seems more shallow than it actually is because of the refraction of light. The American Indians also knew this. If they wanted to hit a fish with an arrow or spear, they had to aim a good deal deeper than the spot where the fish appeared to be.
Shadow play
Lay a penny in a cup near the side. Place the cup in oblique light so that the shadow of the rim just covers the coin. How can you free the penny from the shadow without moving the cup or the coin or using a pocket mirror? Quite simple! Bend the light rays back to the coin. Fill the cup with water and the shadow moves to the side. The light rays do not go on in a straight line after striking the surface of the water, but are bent downwards at an angle.
Broken pencil
Half fill a glass with concentrated salt solution and top it up with pure water using a spoon. If you hold a pencil at the side of the glass, it seems to be broken into three pieces.
The light rays coming from the immersed pencil are bent at an angle when they emerge from the water into the air at the side of the glass. Because salt solution has a different composition from pure water, the angle of refraction is different. We know that how much light rays are bent when they pass from one substance into another entirely depends on the 'optical density' of the different substance.
Cloud of gas
If you pour some bicarbonate of soda and vinegar into a beaker, carbon dioxide is given off. You can normally not see the gas, but if can be made visible: tilt the beaker with its foaming contents in front of a light background in sunlight. You can see the gas, which is heavier than air, flowing from the beaker in dark and light clouds.
Carbon dioxide and air have different optical densities, and so the light rays are bent when they pass through them. The light clouds on the wall are formed where by refraction the propagated light is bent towards it, and the dark clouds are seen where light is bent away.
Bewitched pencils
Look through a round jam jar filled with water. If you stand a pencil a foot behind it, its image appears doubled in the jar. If you close your left eye, the right-hand pencil disappears, and if you close your right eye, the other goes.
One sees distant objects reduced in size through a normal magnifying glass. The water container behaves in a similar way, but since it is cylindrical, you can look through it from all directions. In our experiment both eyes view through the jar from a different angle, so that each one sees a smaller image for itself.
Secret of 3-D postcards
Draw red and blue vertical lines a short distance apart and lay over them along their length a round, solid, transparent glass rod. You can see both lines through the glass. But if you close one eye the red line disappears, and if you close the other eye the blue line disappears.
Each eye looks from a different angle through the rod and perceives-by the particular angle of light refraction-only one line. The experiment explains how the stereoscopic postcard works: its surface consists of thin, transparent ripples, which behave like our glass rod.
Two photographs, each taken from a different angle, are copied together in very fine vertical strips to give a picture, so that under each individual ripple lies a strip of one and a strip of the other photograph. In the ripples we see, as with our glass rod, only the strip of one photograph with each eye, and the brain finally joins the images to give a 3-D picture.
Finger heater
Glue a funnel together with smooth silver paper, as shown in the picture. Stick your finger into it, point it to the midday sun, and you will feel it warm up quite a lot.
The sun's rays are reflected from the walls of the funnel to the middle and are concentrated on the central axis, which is formed by your finger. If you put your finger into the dismantled concave mirror of a bicycle lamp, the son's rays would be unbearably hot. In this case they converge at a point, the focal point of the concave mirror, at which the bulb is usually placed. The heat produced is so great tat one could easily start a fire with a concave mirror. (Grandma is wondering if the heat would enter the hole on the other side and heat the inside of a circle outward this way.)
Sun Power-station
The sun's radiation can be caught in a bowl and by means of the heat potatoes can be stewed in their own juice. A 'nourishing' joke and an instructive experiment at the same time. Take a soup bowl or a large salad bowl with as small a base as possible and line it inside with household aluminum foil-bright side outwards. (Grandma thinks of an old electrical night light used for working on cars at night for this.)
Smooth the folds with a rubber ball and a spoon until the foil acts like a mirror. Split it a little at the base of the bowl so as to be able to press in a suction hook, on which you fix a small raw potato. If you point the cooker on a warm day towards the midday sun, the potato becomes hot at once and is cooked after some time.
Now and then you must re-align the bowl towards the sun. The sun's rays falling on the aluminum foil are reflected to the middle and concentrated on the potato. In tropical countries people often use concave mirrors for cooking. Did you know that even electricity can be produced in large poser stations by the son's radiation?
Magic glass
If you place a jar over a coin lying on the table, it looks just as if it were in the jar. If you now pour water into the jar and put the lid on it-abracadabra!-the coin has disappeared, as if it had dissolved in the water.
When the jar is empty the light rays from the coin travel into our eyes in the usual way. But if the jar is filled with water, the light rays do not follow this path any more. They are reflected back over the bottom of glass when they hit the water from below at an angle. We call this total reflection, and only a silvery gleam can be seen on the bottom of the jar.
View into infinity
Hold a pocket mirror between your eyes so that you can look to both sides into a larger mirror. If you place the mirrors parallel to one another, you will see an unending series of mirrors which stretch into the distance like a glass canal.
Since the glass of the mirror shines with a slightly greenish tint, some light is absorbed at each reflection, so that the image becomes less sharp with increasing distance. Nevertheless the experiment is interesting, because one can make an image of infinity for oneself.
You need a highly glazed picture postcard. Cut the edges smooth and divide the writing side along its length into four panels an inch wide. Scratch the lines lightly and bend and stick the card into a triangular tube-shape with the glazed side facing inwards. Both openings are glued up with transparent cellophane. At one end also stick white paper over the cellophane, having previously inserted small snips of coloured cellophane in between, so that they can move easily. A beautiful pattern, which alters on tapping with your finger, appears in the tube.
The tree highly glazed surfaces of the bent picture postcard behave like mirrors and multiply the image of the coloured pieces of cellophane. A polished surface reflects better, the flatter the light rays hit it. But since part of the radiation is absorbed into the surface, the image reflected from it is not so clear and bright as with a mirror.
Mirror cabinet
Obtain three sections of mirror each about 3 x 4 inches in size, or cut them your self. Polish them well, and join them with adhesive tape-reflecting surfaces facing inwards- to make a triangular tube. Stick coloured paper outside. If you now look obliquely from above into the mirror prism you will discover a magic world! If you hold a finger in the prism, its image is always multiplied six times in an endless series in all directions. If you place a small flower inside, a meadow of flowers stretches into the distance. And if you move two small figures, innumerable couples dance in an immense hall of mirrors.
Shining head
Stick a pin with a polished head into a cork cut in half length ways and fix some celluloid on it to protect your eyes. If you look at the tiny light reflection from the head of the pin under a bright lamp, while holding it right up to the eye, it appears as a plate sized circle of light. A hair stuck onto the moistened celluloid is seen magnified to the width of a finger in the circle of light.
The head of the pin behaves like a small convex mirror. The light which hits it is spread out on reflection, and irradiates a correspondingly large field on the retina of the eye.
Light mill
Cut out four pieces of aluminum foil 1 X 1 1/2 inches in size. If you use the silver paper from a cigarette packet, you must remove any backing. Stick the sheets on to a match like the blades of a mill wheel, with the bright sides all facing in the same direction. Blacken the matt sides over a candle, holding a knife blade behind the foil to assist you. Put a drop of glue at one end of the match, draw it out to a hair-fine thread and let it dry. Place a tall jar in the sun, hang the mill inside, and it soon begins to turn without stopping.
We know that dark surfaces are more strongly heated by sunlight than light ones, and such heat difference is the secret of the light mill. The sooty side of the foil absorbs the light rays and is heated about ten times more strongly than the light-reflecting bright side. The difference in the amount of heat radiated from the sides of the blades causes the rotation.
The sun's spectrum
Lay a piece of white paper on the window sill and place on it a polished whiskey glass full to the brim with water. Fix a postcard with a finger-wide slit onto the glass, so that a band of sunlight falls onto the surface of the water. A splendid spectrum appears on the paper, and the bands red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet can be easily distinguished.
The experiment is only possible in the morning or evening when the sunlight falls obliquely. It is refracted at the surface of the water and the side of the glass and is separated as well into its coloured components The experiment also works well with light from an electric torch.
Spectrum in a feather
Hold a large bird's feather just in front of one eye and look at a burning candle standing a yard away. The flame seems to be multiplied in an X-shaped arrangement, and also shimmers in the spectral colours.
The appearance is produced by the bending of light at the slits. Between the regular arrangement of feather sections (vanes and barbs) are narrow slits with sharp edges. The light is bent on passing through them, that is, it is refracted and separated into the spectral colours. Since you see through several slits at the same time, the flame appears many times.
Coloured hoop
You will certainly only have seen a rainbow in the sky as a semi-circle up to now. You can conjure up a complete circle for yourself from sunlight. Stand out-of-doors on a stool in the late afternoon with your back to the sun and spray a fine shower with the water hose. A coloured circle appears in front of you!
The sunlight is reflected in the drops so that each shines with the spectral colours. But the colours of the drops are only visible to your eyes when they fall in a circular zone at a viewing angle of 85° in front of you. Only the shadow of your body briefly breaks the circle.
Coloured top
Cut a circle about four inches in diameter from white cardboard and colour it as shown with bright-coloured felt pens. Stick the disk on a halved cotton reel, push a pencil stump through it and allow it to spin. The colours disappear as if by magic, and the disk appears white.
The colours on the disk correspond to the colours of the spectrum of which sunlight is composed. On rotation our eyes perceive the individual colours for a very short time. However, since the eyes are too sluggish to distinguish between the rapidly changing colour impressions, they merge and are transmitted to the brain as white.
Summer lightning
Look alternately left and right at the blue of the sky. You will not trust your eyes because it flashes continuously with bright lightning.
What is the explanation for this appearance? If you look at the picture, it is imprinted on the retina of the eye. But red colour impressions remain longer on your retina than blue when you move your gaze. So the impression of the red lightning is overlaid for an instant on the blue of the sky. These two colours together, however, produce an impression of bright light in your brain. Since a new impression of the lightning is formed with each movement of the eye, the process is repeated.
Unusual magnification
Make a small hole in a card with a needle. Hold it close to the eye and look through it. If you bring a newspaper very close you will see, to your surprise, the type much larger and clearer.
This phenomenon is caused in the first place by the refraction of light. The light rays passing through the small hole are made to spread out, and so the letters appear larger. The sharpness of the image is caused-as in a camera_by the shuttering effect of the small opening. The part of the light radiation which would make the image blurred is held back.
Veined figure
Close your left eye in a dark room and hold a lighted torch close beside the right eye. Now look straight ahead and move the torch slowly to your forehead and back. After some time you will see a large, treelike branched image in front of you.
Very fine blood vessels lie over the retina of the eye, but we do not normally see them. If they are irradiated from the side, they throw shadows on the optic nerves lying below and give the impression of an image apparently floating in front of you.
Motes in the eye
Make a hole in a card with a needle and look through it at a burning, low-power electric light bulb. You will see peculiar shapes which float before you like tiny bubbles.
This is no optical illusion! The shapes are tiny cloudings in the eyes, which throw shadows on to the retina. Since these are heavier than the liquid in the eye, they always fall further down after each blink. If you lay your head on one side, the motes struggle towards the angle of the eye, showing that they follow the force of gravity.
Ghost in the castle
(This has to be in Grandma's words--If you draw a large castle with a open gate doorway in the middle on one side of a white piece of paper and put a black ghost smaller on the other side. Now stare into the mouth of the ghost for about a minute in bright light. Then look at the castle a minute, a white ghost will appear.)
When you look at the figure, part of the retina is not exposed to light from the black surface. The rest of the optic nerves are dazzled by the bright paper and tire quickly. If you now look at the castle tower, the tired optic nerves do not see the white of the paper in its full brightness, but as a grey surface. The rest, on the other hand, see the white tint of the paper all the more clearly. So an exchange of the black and white surfaces is produced and you see a white ghost in the dark arch of the tower. Only after quite a time, when the nerves have adjusted themselves, does the ghost disappear.
Goldfish in the bowl
Stare in bright light for one minute at the eye of the white fish. If you then look at the point in the empty gold fish bowl, there appears to be light green water and a red fish in it after several seconds.
If the eyes have stared for a long time at the left-hand picture, the part of the light-sensitive retina which is irradiated by the red surface tires and the optic nerves concerned become rather insensitive to red. So on looking at the white surface in the right-hand picture, they do not perceive the red radiation which is present in white light. They are only sensitive to the yellow and blue components, which together give green. But the part of the retina which has received the picture of the white fish is now sensitive to the opposite colour to green, namely red. Coloured after-images can be produced with other colours just as well. Each colour changes into the opposite; i.e. blue into yellow, yellow into blue and green into red.
Bewitched rabbit
(Grandma has to write this one also because you must have a picture of a magician holding a wand in his left hand facing you drawn on the left side of a black picture with a rabbit on the right.)  Then shut your left eye and stare at the magic rod with your right. If you now slowly alter the distance of the picture--Abracadabra--the rabbit suddenly disappears.
The retina of the eye consists of a large number of light sensitive nerve endings, the so-called rods and cones. These are absent at one point, where they join together at the optic nerve. If the image of the rabbit thrown on the retina falls at this "blind spot" as we move the picture we cannot see it.
The disappearing finger
Cover your left eye with your right hand and look straight ahead with your right eye. Raise your left forefinger to your left ear and move it until the tip of the finger is just visible (A). If you now move your eye to look directly at the finger (B) the light rays from the finger go past it.
Hole in the hand
Roll a piece of writing paper into a tube and look through it with your right eye. Hold your left hand open on the left next to the paper. To your surprise you will discover a hole, which apparently goes through the middle of the palm of your hand. The right eye sees the inside of the tube and the left the open hand. As in normal vision, the impressions which are received by each eye are combined to give a composite image in the brain. It works particularly well because the image from inside the tube, which is transferred to the palm of the hand, is in perspective.
Moon rocket
(For this next picture you must have a moon drawn on the left side of the paper with a little star in the middle and a rocket on the right side of the page.) Hold the picture so that the tip of your nose touches the star, and turn it round slowly to the left. The rocket flies into the sky and lands again on the moon. Each eye receives its own image on viewing and both impressions are transmitted to give a composite whole in the brain. If you hold the star to the tip of your nose, your right eye only sees the rocket and the left only the moon. As usual, the halves of the image are combined in the brain. As you turn the picture on its edge, it does not shrink any more because both eyes see the same image by squinting.
Ghostly ball
Hold your forefingers so that they are touching about a foot in front of the tip of your nose and look over the fingertips away to the opposite wall. On doing this you will see a curious ball, which is apparently fixed between the fingertips.
When you look over your fingers your eyes are focused sharply on the wall. But the fingers are then projected on the retina in such a way that the images are not combined in your brain. You see the tips of both fingers doubled. These finally combine to give the illusion of a round or oval image.
This is for the experiments today. Grandma will give the rest next week.

Day 163

Posted on May 20, 2014 at 10:11 AM Comments comments (4)
36 more hours of material to end the season! Grandma is trying all she can. She seems to have family that do not seem to respect her or her home. Grandpa and I got it cleaned and I keep trying to push. Grandma figures 6-10 hours today, 6-10 hours tomorrow, 12 on Thursday, and 6 left on Friday, and we will have done it. Please bare with me. Grandma has some more experiments from Book (12) for you on this day: 14 on Liquids(which I may have already given you but we will repeat them) and 9 on Buoyancy. Grandma has only till 9 before she must go to the doctors appointment, bare with.
The first experiment is called String of pearls. Let a fine jet of water pour on a finger held about two inches under the tap. If you look carefully, you will see a strange wave-like pattern in the water.
If you bring your finger closer to the tap, the waves become continuously more ball-shaped, until the water jet resembles a string of pearls. It is so strongly obstructed by the finger that because of its surface tension--the force which holds the water particles together--it separates into round droplets. If you take your finger further away from the tap, the falling speed of the water becomes greater, and the drop formation is less clear.
The next experiment is called Water knots. An empty two-lb. can is pierced five times just above the lower edge with a thin nail. The first hole should be just over an inch from the fifth. Place the tin under a running tap, and a jet will flow from each hole. If you move your finger over the holes, the jets will join together.
The water particles are attracted to one another and produce a force acting into the interior of the liquid, the surface tension. It is also this force which holds a water droplet together. In our experiment the force is particularly clear, and it diverts the jets into a sideways arc and knots them.
The third experiment is called Mountain of water. Fill a dry glass just full with tap water, without any overflowing. Slide coins carefully into the glass, one after the other, and notice how the water curves above the glass.
It is surprising how many coins you can put in without the water spilling over. The water mountain is supported by surface tension, as though it is covered by a fine skin. Finally, you can even shake the contents of a salt cellar slowly into the glass. The salt dissolves without the water pouring out.
The fourth experiment is called Ship on a High Sea. Place a half dollar or 10 new pence on the table, and on one side of the coin a small cork disk. How can you move the cork to the exact center of the coin without touching it?
Pour water on to the coin-drop wise, so that it does not spill over-to form a water mountain over the surface. At first the force of gravity holds the cork on the edge of the slightly curved water surface. If you now pour on more water, the pressure of the water on the edge increases, while it remains constant on the top. So the cork moves up the hill to the middle, which is the region of lowest pressure.
The fifth experiment is called Floating metal. Fill a bowl with tap water. Place small metal objects on blotting paper and carry it carefully into the dish with a fork. After a time the saturated blotting paper sinks, but the small objects remain floating.
Since metal is heavier than water, it should really fall to the bottom. The liquid particles are held together so strongly by a mysterious force, the surface tension, that they prevent the objects sinking. Surface tension is destroyed by soap.(maybe add some soap and see what happens)
The sixth experiment is called Watertight sieve. Fill a milk bottle with water (or try a jar) and fasten a piece of wire gauze about two inches square over its mouth with a rubber band(attach that with a wire across the square or the sides bent down for the rubber band to catch). Place your hand over the top and turn the bottle upside down. If you take your hand away quickly, no water comes out. Where water comes into contact with air, it surrounds itself as though with a skin, because of its surface tension. Each opening in the wire gauze is so well sealed, that air can neither flow in nor water flow out. This also occurs with the fine holes of tenting material, which is made water-repellent by impregnation, and rain drops cannot get through because of their surface tension.
The seventh experiment is called Rope trick. Knot a piece of string into a loop and allow it to float in a bowl of water. If you dip a match into the middle of the irregularly shaped loop, it immediately becomes circular.
The match has this magic power because it was previously dabbed with a little washing-up liquid. This spreads in all directions when the match is dipped into the water and penetrates between the water particles, which were held together like a skin by surface tension. This 'water skin' breaks in a flash from the place where the match is dipped in outwards. The liquid particles which are made to move push against the loop and make it rigid.
The eighth experiment is called Speedboat. Split a match slightly at its lower end and smear some soft soap into the slit. If you place the match in a dish of tap water, it moves forwards quickly for quite a time. Several matches could have a race in a bath tub.
The soap destroys the surface tension of the water by degrees as it gradually dissolves. This causes a backward movement of the water particles, which produces as a reaction a forward movement of the match. With a drop of detergent instead of the soap the movement would be like a rocket.
The ninth experiment is called Little railway. Make a rectangular frame about 1 x 3 inches out of thin wire. Place a straight piece of wire loosely over the center. Dip the whole thing into washing-up liquid, so that a fine film stretches over it. If you pierce through one side, the piece of wire rolls backwards to the other end of the frame. The liquid particles attract one another so strongly that the soap film is almost as elastic as a blown-up balloon. If you break the cohesion of the particles on one side, the force of attraction on the other side predominates, the remaining liquid is drawn over and the wire rolls with it.
The tenth experiment is called Soap bubbles. In each plastic detergent bottle that is thrown away there are still a thousand soap bubbles! Cut off the lower third of an empty detergent bottle and mix 10 teaspoonfuls of water with the detergent remaining in it. Bore a hole in the cap, push a straw through it, and a match into the nozzle. Put some of the liquid into the pipe and blow!
The liquid particles in the soap bubbles are compressed from outside and inside by surface tension. They hold together so strongly that they enclose the air flowing from the pipe and so take on the shape of the smallest surface, which is a sphere.
The eleventh experiment is called Bag of wind. Prevent a large soap bubble sitting on the pipe from flying off by closing the end of the straw with your finger. Hod it near a candle flame and then take your finger away. The flame leans to the side, while the soap bubble becomes smaller and vanishes.
Although a soap bubble film is generally less than one-thirty-thousandth of a inch thick, it is so strong that the air inside is compressed. When the end of the straw is released, the liquid particles contract to form drops again because of the surface tension, and thus push the air out.
The twelve experiment is called Water rose. Cut out a flower shape from smooth writing paper, colour it with crayons and fold the petals firmly inwards. If you place the rose on water you will see the flower petals open in slow motion. (The flower is like a drawn sun with a spiral in the middle like a circle only many sides and points from each side--looks like the sun.)
Paper consists mainly of plant fibers, which are composed of extremely fine tubes. The water rises in these so-called capillary tubes. The paper swells, and the petals of the synthetic rose rise up, like the leaves of a wilting plant when it is placed in water.
The thirteenth experiment is called Game of chance. Fill a preserving jar, as tall as you can find, with water, stand a brandy class in it and try to drop coins into the glass.(the glass is shaped low and wide) It is very surprising that however carefully you aim, the coin nearly always slips away to the side.
It is very seldom possible to get the coin straight into the water. The very smallest slope is enough to cause a greater resistance of the water on the slanting under side of the coin. Because its center of gravity lies exactly in the middle, it turns easily and drifts to the side.
The last and fourteenth experiment is called Sloping path. If you cool a boiled egg in the usual way under the water tap, you can make a surprising discovery. Hold the saucepan so that the water runs between the egg and the rim. If you now lean the saucepan to the other side the does not, as you would expect, roll down the bottom of the saucepan, but stays in the stream of water.
By Bernouilli's Law the pressure of a liquid or a gas becomes lower with increasing speed (going back to the experiments on air in which they blow things forward or into a can and then sucking them to them as the last experiment sucking air inward through a funnel instead of downward flow from the funnel). In the stream of water between the rim of the pan and the egg there is reduced pressure, and the egg is pressed by the surrounding water, which is at normal pressure, against the pan.
Grandma will have to finish the experiments later today. Take care.

Day 160

Posted on May 19, 2014 at 2:22 AM Comments comments (14)
Good Morning! Grandma is a little oozy from a bout with fever and chills along with constant sleep yesterday afternoon and into the morning. Not sure if it was from cleaning a dusty basement or something Grandma got else wise. I do not anymore of it for sure.
Grandma is going to start with the Calendar History, then do some science experiments, and start on some more things about the pioneers with one story possible.
May 20, 1851 Emile Berliner, American inventor of the flat-disk phonograph record, was born. Book (1) says, "In honor of American inventor Emile Berliner, have a contest to tap the ingenuity of the "inventors" ... .Ask your ... Librarian to collect books on inventors and inventions. (Grandma believes the video she placed on her one blog tells a lot also. Good prospects include The World Almanac Book of Inventions by Valerie-Anne Giscard d'Estaing and Steve Caney's Invention Book. Have the kids review the books for insights into how inventors came up with their ideas and produced their products. Then challenge (the children) to design and name an invention that would solve an everyday problem. Award small prizes in several categories--for example, wackiest, most futuristic, most sensible. (etc.)
In 1935 Carol Carrick, children's author, was born. In 1940 Sadaharu Oh, Japanese baseball player who hit more than 800 career home runs, was born.
In 1781 Thomas Hutchins was appointed the First Geographer of the United States. In 1862 President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act, which offered free land in the West to any citizen who would settle it. In 1873 Levi Strauss patented pocket pants. In 1875 The International Bureau of Weights and Measures was established. Therefore, May 20th is Weights and Measures Day. Book (1) says, "On Weights and Measures Day, use a balance scale to weigh a notebook. Record the weight ... . Challenge (the children) to find a combination of classroom objects--pencils, erasers, thumbtacks, and so on--that they think will equal the weight of the notebook. ... Weigh the collections to find out."
In 1892 George Sampson patented the Clothes Dryer. In 1927 Charles Lindbergh left New York on the First Solo Transatlantic Flight. Book (1) says, "It took Charles Lindbergh 33 1/2 hours to fly from Long Island, N.Y., to Paris, France. Have your (children) mark his route on a world map, then calculate the number of miles he flew. Next, have the kids find out how long it takes a commercial airliner to make a transatlantic flight today."
Albrecht Durer sketches in Grandma's Place of Natural Learning Center.In 1928 Pride of San Joaquin won the First Calaveras County Frog Jumping Contest. In 1932 Amelia Earhart began a solo flight across the Atlantic. In 1985 The FBI broke up the infamous Walker Spy Ring with the arrests of retired naval officer John Walker and his son Michael. John Walker's brother Arthur also was later arrested.
An extra sketch for learning from Albrecht Durer.
On May 21st 1471 Albrecht Durer, German artist, was born. Book (1) says, "(Children) can celebrate the birthday of Albrecht Durer by doing their own animal observation sketches. To begin, show students examples of Durer's works, such as The Hare. Tell the children that Durer felt a true artist had only to observe nature carefully in order to capture it in art." Take a picture of a pet and observe it 20 minutes each day sketching pictures of it that can be displayed with the photo later.
In 1688 Alexander Pope, British poet, was born. In 1878 Glen Curtiss, American inventor of the seaplane, was born.
In 1881 Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross Society. In 1927 Charles Lindbergh landed at le Bourget Airport in Paris, thus completing the First Nonstop Solo Transatlantic Flight. In 1932 Amelia Earhart became the First Woman to complete a Solo Transatlantic Flight, from Newfoundland to Ireland. Book (1) says, "Tell your (children) that Amelia Earhart, achieved a number of aviation firsts in her lifetime. Before flying solo across the Atlantic, she had been the first female passenger on a transatlantic flight. She was also the first woman to fly from Honolulu to the U.S. mainland and the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross. Have your (children) each name another person--family member, friend, community member, celebrity, or sports star--who achieved an important first. Then have the kids design a medallion for that person.
In 1972 Jane Dorst of Atherton, Calif., released a Helium Balloon with her name and address inside. It was found 200 days later in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. In 1974 The First Nuclear-powered Lighthouse began operating. In 1980 The Empire Strikes Back, the sequel to Star Wars, opened. Lastly, it is All-American Buckle-up Week. Book (1) says, "During All-American Buckle-Up Week, have your (children) create buckle-up slogans and write these on plain mailing labels." These can be stuck on various places for display, you decide where.
Grandma is now going to give you some experiments on Electricity, The last ones on Static electricity, I may have already given you but, you can have them again. These are all from Grandma's book(12). The first one is called Potato battery. Stick finger-length pieces of copper and zinc wire one at a time into a raw potato. If you hold an earphone on the wires, you will hear a distinct crackling. The noise is caused by an electric current. The potato and wires produce an electric current in the same way as a torch battery, but only a very weak one. The sap of the potato reacts with the metals in a chemical process and also produces electrical energy. We speak of a galvanic cell because the Italian doctor Galvani first observed this process in a similar experiment in 1789. Link to Alessandra Volta who invented the Battery.
The next experiment is called Coin current. Place several copper coins and pieces of sheet zinc of the same size alternately above one another, and between each metal pair insert a piece of blotting paper soaked in salt water. Electrical energy, which you can detect, is set free. Wind thin, covered copper wire about 50 times round a compass, and hold one of the bare ends on the last coin and one on the last zinc disk. The current causes a deflection of the compass needle.
In a similar experiment the Italian physicist Volta obtained a current. The salt solution acts on the metal like the sap in the potato in the previous experiment.
Graphite conductor is the name of the next experiment. Connect a torch bulb with a battery by means of a pair of scissors and a pencil. The bulb lights up.
From the long tongue of the battery, the negative pole, the current flows through the metal of the scissors to the lamp. It makes it glow, and flows through the graphite shaft to the positive pole of the battery. Therefore graphite is a good conductor; so much electricity flows even through a pencil "lead" on paper, that you can hear crackling in earphones.
The next experiment being called Mini-Microphone is as follows: Push two pencil leads through the short sides of a matchbox, just above the base. Scrape off some of the surface, and do the same with a shorter lead, which you lay across the top. Connect the microphone with a battery and earphone in the next room (You can take the earphone from a transistor radio.) Hold the box horizontal and speak into it. Your words can be heard clearly in the earphone.
The current flows through the graphite "leads". When you speak into the box, the base vibrates, causing pressure between the "leads". When you speak into the box, the base vibrates, causing pressure between the "leads" to alter and making the current flow unevenly. The current variations cause vibrations in the earphone.
The next experiment called Mysterious circles is as follows: Punch a length of copper wire through a piece of cardboard laid horizontally and connect the ends of the wire to a battery. Scatter iron fillings on to the cardboard and tap it lightly with your finger. The iron filings form circles round the wire. If a direct current is passed through a wire or another conductor, a magnetic field is produced round it. The experiment would not work with an alternating current, in which the direction of the current changes in rapid sequence, because the magnetic field would also be changing continuously.
The next experiment is Electro-magnet. Wind one to two yards of thin insulated wire on to an iron bolt and connect the bare ends of the wire to a battery. The bolt will attract all sorts of metal objects.
The current produces a field of force in the coil. The tiny magnet particles in the iron become arranged in an orderly manner, so that the iron has a magnetic north and south pole. If the bolt is made of soft iron, it loses its magnetism when the current is switched off, but if it is made of steel it retains it.
The next experiment is called Electro-buzzer. Nail board B (a long 1" in width the length of a square piece 5" x 5"-A) and two rectangle wooden blocks around 1/2" to 3/4" on each side about 5" long each-C and D. D has a slit in it to hold another 1/4" wide both ways-E with a little room to sway both ways. C is nailed to the long thin board B on the closet to you right corner on the edge of A square board. D is given a little more than an inch on the board. D is placed at the far end of you on the left side given that area of a little more than an inch on the square board A. The smaller but longer almost 4" board is laid in the slot of D running from the further end of you then coming toward the end next to you. Attach a bolt into a bored hole of B on the opposite end of the square board a across from the board C. (a long screw screwed into the board could work as well).Wind covered copper wire G 100 times round the bolt and connect the ends to a battery with a paper clip and respectively to H a fretsaw blade Bore into a hole of board C. H should be bored in which the other end lays close to the screw or bolt F. Hammer a long nail K through the middle of the square board A and bend it so that its point rests in the middle of the saw blade H. Oil the point of the nail. Attach a piece of beading into the inside edge of Board E laying close to C. Use a drawing pin-M on the bottom of board E that can match up to another drawing pin-N on the square board A. At he other end of board E is a rubber band-P used as a spring. Join K to M and N to a battery with a paper clip and stripped wire.
If you press the key down, you connect the electric circuit, bolt F becomes magnetic and attracts H. At this moment the circuit is broken at K and the bolt loses its magnetism. H jumps back and reconnects the current. This process is repeated so quickly that the saw blade vibrates and produces a loud buzz. If you wish to do morse signaling with two pieces of apparatus, you must use three leads as in the lower circuit diagram.
The last experiment in this section is called Light fan. Hold a light-coloured rod between your thumb and forefinger and move it quickly up and down in neon light. You do not see, as you might expect, a blurred, bright surface, but a fan with light and dark ribs.
Neon tubes contain a gas, which flashes on and off 50 times a second because of short breaks in alternating current. The moving rod is thrown alternatively into light and darkness in rapid sequence, so that it seems to move by jerks in a semi-circle. Normally the eye is too slow to notice these breaks in illumination clearly. In an electric light bulb the metal filament goes on glowing during the short breaks in current.
The next 8 experiments are around Static Electricity. The first one is called Clinging balloons. Blow up some balloons, tie them up and rub them for a short time on a woolen pullover. If you put them on the ceiling, they will remain there for hours.
The balloons become electrically charged when they are rubbed, that is, they remove minute, negatively charged particles, called electrons, from the pullover. Because electrically charged bodies attract those which are uncharged, the balloons cling to the ceiling until the charges gradually become equal. This generally takes hours in a dry atmosphere because the electrons only flow slowly into the ceiling, which is a poor conductor.
The next experiment is called Pepper and salt. Scatter some coarse salt onto the table and mix it with some ground pepper. How are you going to separate them again? Rub a plastic spoon with a woolen cloth and hold it over the mixture. The pepper jumps up to the spoon and remains sticking to it.
The plastic spoon becomes electrically charged when it is rubbed and attracts the mixture. If you do not hold the spoon too low, the pepper rises first because it is lighter than the salt. To catch the salt grains, you must hold the spoon lower.
The next experiment is called Coiled adder. Cut a spiral-shaped coil from a piece of tissue paper about 4 inches square, lay it on a tin lid and bend its head up. Rub a fountain pen vigorously with a woolen cloth and hold it over the coil. It rises like a living snake and reaches upwards
In this case the fountain pen has taken electrons from the woolen cloth and attracts the uncharged paper. On contact, the paper takes part of the electricity, but gives it up immediately to the lid, which is a good conductor. Since the paper is now uncharged again, it is again attracted, until the fountain pen has lost its charge.
The next experiment is called water bow. Once more rub a plastic spoon with a woolen cloth. Turn the water tap on gently and hold the spoon near the fine jet. At this point, the jet will be pulled towards the spoon in a bow.
The electric charge attracts the uncharged water particles. However, if the water touches the spoon, the spell is broken. Water conducts electricity and draws the charge from the spoon. Tiny water particles suspended in the air also take up electricity. Therefore experiments with static electricity always work best on clear days and in centrally heated rooms.
The next experiment is called Hostile Balloons. Blow two balloons right up and join them with string. Rub both on a woolen pullover and let them hang downwards from the string. They are not attracted, as you might expect, but float away from each other.
Both balloons have become negatively charged on rubbing because they have taken electrons from the pullover, which has now gained a positive charge. Negative and positive charges attract each other, so the balloons will stick to the pullover. Similar charges, however, repel one another, so the balloons try hard to get away from each other.
The next experiment is called Shooting puffed rice. Charge a plastic spoon with a woolen cloth and hold it over a dish containing puffed rice. The grains jump up and remain hanging on the spoon and cling to it for a time. Some of the electrons pass from the spoon into the puffed rice, until the grains and the spoon have the same charge. Since, however, like charges repel one another, we have this unusual drama.
The next experiment is called Simple Electroscope. Bore a hole through the lid of a jam jar and push a piece of copper wire bent into a hook through it. Hang a folded strip of aluminum foil over the back. If you hold a fountain pen, comb, or similar object which has been electrically charged by rubbing on the top of the wire, the ends of the strip spring apart.
On contact with a charged object, electrical charges flow through the wire to the ends of the strip. Both now have the same charge and repel one another according to the strength of the charge.
The next is called Electrical ball game. Fix a piece of aluminum foil cut into the shape of a footballer on the edge of a phonograph record, rub the record vigorously with a woolen cloth and place it on a dry glass. Put a tin can about two inches in front of the figure. If you hold a small aluminum foil ball on a thread between them, it swings repeatedly from the figure to the can and back.
The electric charge on the record flows into the aluminum-foil figure and attracts the ball. It becomes charged, but is immediately repelled because the charges become equal, and goes to the can, where it loses its electricity. This process is repeated for a time.
The next experiment is called Electric fleas. Rub a long playing record with a woolen cloth and place it on a glass. If you toss some small aluminum foil-balls on to the record, they will jump away from one another in a zig-zag motion. If you then move the balls together with your fingers, they will hop fiercely away again.
The electricity produced on the record by rubbing is distributed in irregular fields. The balls take up the charge and are repelled, but are again attracted to fields with the opposite charge. They will also be repelled when they meet balls with the same charge.
The next experiment is called Puppet dance. Lay a pane of glass across two books, with a metal plate underneath. Cut out dolls an inch or so high from tissue paper. If you rub the glass with a woolen cloth, the dolls underneath begin a lively dance. They stand up, turn round in a circle, fall, and spring up again.
The glass becomes electrically charged when it is rubbed with the wool, attracts the dolls, and also charges them. Since the two like charges repel each other, the dolls fall back on the plate, give up their charge to the metal and are again attracted to the glass.
Next is called High voltage. Place a flat baking tray on a dry glass, rub a blown-up balloon vigorously on a woolen pullover and place it on the tray. If you put your finger near the edge of the tray, a spark jumps across.
A voltage equalization occurs between the metal and the finger. Although, the spark is discharged with several thousand volts, it is just as harmless as the sparks produced when you comb your hair. An American scientist discovered that a cat's fur must be stroked 9,200,000,000 times to produce a current sufficient to light a 75-watt bulb for a minute.
The next experiment is called Flash of lightning. Place a metal slice on a dry glass(it shows an old metal spatula with the handle broken off), and on it a piece of hard foam plastic which you have rubbed well on your pullover. If you hold your finger near the handle of the slice, a spark jumps across.
When the negatively charged plastic is placed on the slice, the negative electric particles in the metal are repelled to the end of the handle, and the voltage between it and the finger becomes equalized. Plastic materials can become strongly charged. In warehouses, for example, metal stands for rolls of plastic are earthed because otherwise they often spark when they are touched by the personnel.
The last experiment under Static Electricity, is called Electric light. In many homes there is a voltage tester, generally in the form of a screwdriver. In its handle there is, amongst other things, a small neon tube which you can easily remove. Hold one metal end firmly and rub the other on a piece of hard foam plastic which may be used for insulation. The lamp begins to glow as it is rubbed to and fro, and you can see this particularly clear in the dark.
Since the plastic is soft, its layers are rubbed against one another by the movement of the lamp and become strongly charged with electricity. The electrons collect on the surface, flow through the core of the tiny lamp, which begins to glow and into the body.
The ancient Greeks had already discovered that amber attracted other substances when it was rubbed. They called the petrified resin 'electron'. The power which has caused such fundamental changes in the world since then therefore gets its name-electricity.
This next part is on the Pioneers. First link to Smokey Mountain Pioneers and then to the movement of the Oregon Trails, Sturh Museum, and Ozark Territory. Then a look at the Old Sod Houses of the Pioneers.
In beginning of the story Little House on the Prairie, Grandma's book (185) wants us to understand that it "is a book based on one girl's memories of her family." Memories could be told long before Grandma's time, but most of the people living on the prairie have long died. Much of what we have is in museums, memories told to children born in the depression, and in books as this one.
The Story Summary says "One day toward the end of winter, Charles Ingalls (Pa) announces to his wife Caroline (Ma) that the big woods of Wisconsin are becoming too crowded. He has decided they will travel west to Indian country. So they sell their little log house, build a covered wagon, and move and settle out West.
All that year, Ma, Pa, Laura, May, and Baby Carrie put their hearts and their hard work into their new home. Then suddenly word comes from the government that the land where they have built their home belongs to the Osage Indians. The settlers will have to move on. Sad to leave, but looking forward to new adventures, the Ingalls family packs their wagon once again for another journey.
In Meet the Author: Laura Ingalls Wilder Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957) was born in a "little house in the big woods" in Pepin, Wisconsin, on February 7 to Charles and Caroline Ingalls. In 1870 the Ingalls family journeyed west to homestead in Kansas. When the government informed them in 1871 that they had settled on land belonging to the Osage Indians, they moved on to Minnesota, where they lived on the "banks of Plum Creek." Finally in 1855, Laura married Almanzo Wilder, and 1886, their daughter Rose was born in De Smet, South Dakota. The Wilders eventually settled in a one-room log cabin in Mansfield, MIssouri, where they later built their own home-a ten-room farmhouse. Laura always considered herself a partner in her husband's business. She did not begin writing professionally until 1932 at age 65.
Information on the illustrator, Garth Williams, is as follows: Garth Williams was born in New York City on April 16, 1912, of English parents, both of whom were artists. Educated in England, Williams studied at the Westminster Art School and the Royal College of Art. Williams returned to the United States in 1941 to work as an artist for The New Yorker magazine. He was asked to illustrate E.B. White's Stuart Little in 1944, and he has been a children's book illustrator ever since. Before beginning the illustrations for the 1953 Harper edition of the "Little House" books, Williams visited Mr. and Mrs. Wilder in their home in Mansfield, Missouri, and then actually followed the route that the Ingalls family took in their covered wagon.
What Grandma had obtained from her family history has been mainly given to her by her mother. My father's last name was Karnes and their family moved from Wichita Kansas to Denver , CO after my grandfather was grown and married my Mother in Colorado Springs. He was very intelligent and became an accountant and eventually an office manager for a trucking company as I grew up. He grew up in Kansas and played the saxophone. His father wrote some and was a traveling salesman at some time. His mother had seven children.
My mother's family has some history that is very valuable. Her relations carried a woman from Iowa carrying the last name of Henry VIII last wife. We still have more research to do in that area. Her mother's father was born on a ship coming into New Orleans who settled in Waverly, Nebraska training horses. He loaded up the horses and his big family and moved to Alliance, Nebraska. My mother's father was born of my mother's grandparents who had some other children They raised my mother after her mother died when my mother was 2 years old. The each played instruments for their churches and lived on the river till they moved in town with the girls, my mother and aunt. I remember my Aunt Myrtle, a very sweet and strong woman, large built and an amazing old fashioned home. For some reason I know I loved her. My mother's father and grandmother were hard on my mother, but she said her grandfather was very sweet. She said she and my aunt took care of their grandmother before she died. They remember fixing her hair and cooking. She remembers chopping wood and starting the morning fire to dress by. She said she had family that was born as twins and they were kept warm by the back of the stove as in an incubator. They survived till an old age. Twins seems to be in both sides because a cousin had a set even though one died. My brothers son just had a set also, they are very cute. I do not know much more than that, other than that my grandmother helped my grandfather when she could. However, her family would not take the girls in. I have seen a few museums in my lifetime but have no collections of my own but one bowl. I do know it was a hard life.
I do know my aunt's ranch 12 miles out did not have telephone until later in the 50's and much of the ponds were ruined from practice by the army on the lands. They did raise quite a bit of cattle though.
This all Grandma can handle tonight. I will write more tomorrow and cover as much as possible. It is going to be a long week, so be prepared.

Day 153 and 154

Posted on April 24, 2014 at 11:57 AM Comments comments (21)
Well The car still had a problem. It was a little thin washer on the axel. We had bought two differential parts, and a part on the back of the transmission. This little washer may have been the problem causing everything else. I am not sure, but it made it where Grandma could not go to the library and work yesterday well enough two little step great grandchildren to entertain. What fun! I am sorry! Hopefully, this will be the end of our problems. However, Grandma will put the two days together again.
Grandma also realized she wanted to cover the Continents of Australia and South American before the school season is over. Australia starts with A, therefore, this time of year it seems to fit into the lessons and I like to have it within the month of April so it will be covered today.
I hope you all remembered the other day and Grandma will review it as part of the posting to do your tasks; Childrobotics; physical education of sports or dancing else the health learning of our bodies in
the study of our eyes, teeth, ears, minds, skin, organs, muscles, and bones as well as healthy food or things not so good for us; some math of some kind; science of experiments, inventions, space, plants, animals, and insects; language of ABC's, words, vocabulary, sentence structure, and spelling; writing and styles of writing; newspapers; journals; yearbooks; and family scrapbooks and recipes as well as any history included.
Read History from the Bible in 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians then follow the Introductions and the exercises included from Faith Alive. The Introduction for 1 Corinthians is as follows:
Whom...did God inspire to write this book? The apostle Paul wrote 1 Corinthians. This is the secon of Paul's thirteen books in the Bible.
To Whom...was this letter first written? This book is the first of two letters Paul sent to Christians in Corinth, a port city in Greece very much like our big cities today. Paul knew Corinth well from his missionary visits (Acts 18:1-8; 20:1-3).
When...was this letter written? This book was written about A.D. 57, probably from the city of Ephesus.
How...does 1 Corinthians show us God's love? The book of 1 Corinthians shows that God loves his people even when they fall into all kinds of sins. The Corinthians were guilty of sins even their unbelieving neighbors would not commit. But God offered them the one and only remedy, and a simple one at that: the cross of Jesus. Jesus' death on the cross is the answer for all of our problems.
What...special messages does this book give us? Paul wrote this book to help the Corinthians solve problems in their church. The Corinthians were struggling with quarrels, sexual sins, lawsuits against each other, selfishness, and misunderstandings about Holy Communion and Jesus' resurrection. Paul wrote especially to help the Corinthians love one another.
        ...are some important teachings in this book?
     Christians united, not divided.                                         1 Cor. 1:10-17
 God's power and wisdom in Christ.                                      1 Cor. 1:18-31
                           Avoiding sin.                                            1 Cor. 6:9-11
             Temples of the Holy Spirit.                                      1 Cor. 6:18-20
Married or single, both God pleasing.                                    1 Cor. 7:1-40
  Holy Communion, the true body
               and blood of Jesus.                                               1 Cor. 10:16-17; 11:17-34
 Different roles from men and women.                                     1 Cor. 11:3-16; 14:33-35
            Each person important.                                             1 Cor. 12:12-31
                        Real love.                                                     1 Cor. 13:1-13
                      Jesus is alive.                                                 1 Cor. 15:3-8
            We will be resurrected too.                                         1 Cor. 15:35-58
Now follow and do the exercises in Faith Alive for 1 Corinthians starting with "Let's Live It! 1 Corinthians 1:18-31 Thank you, Mr. Know-It-All--Do you know a Mr. Know-It-All? A know-it-all is somebody who thinks he or she knows everything. Well, nobody does, right? But lots of people think they do.
Read 1 Corinthians 1:18-31. Here's something not even Mr. Know-It-All could have figured out: how we could be saved from our sins. We were saved by Jesus dying! Seemed pretty foolish. Jesus looked pretty helpless. Turns out, by dying, he took away our sins and gave us eternal life. Pretty clever! And we don't have to be a know-it-all to get it.
Life In Bible Times-Temple Meat Markets--The meat of animals sacrificed to pagan gods was sold in markets that were part of pagan temples. Most city people in New Testament times bought their meat at these markets. 
Let' Live It! 1 Corinthians 10:16-17 Really Present--The night before he died on the cross, Jesus took bread and wine and gave it to his disciples. Christians have been eating and drinking this special meal ever since.
What did Jesus mean when he said, "This is my body" and "my blood" (Matthew 26:26,28)? When Jesus said, "This is my body," he meant this is his body. When he said, "This is my blood," he meant this is his blood. Jesus meant what he said.
In Holy Communion, we actually receive the very body of Jesus, who died on the cross. We actually receive His true blood, shed for the forgiveness of our sins. Christ gives his body and blood in, with, and under the consecrated (blessed) bread and wine. We call this the "real presence."(how true this is meant, Grandma believes also if not the sharing of Jesus spirit with us meaning his power to become him as much as we can do. Meaning it gives us the power to do as he did and believed as well as the spiritual power to stay true to God and not falter to other beliefs.)
Words to Remember 1 Corinthians 10;16 Is not the cup...a participation in the blood of Christ?
Let's Live It! 1 Corinthians 11:23-29 Why the Lord's Supper?--Read 1 Corinthians 11:23-29 Why the Lord's Supper?--Read 1 Corinthians 11:23-29 Why the big deal?
The big deal is that Holy Communion gives us everything Jesus came to give! It all starts with Jesus' words: "This is my body,... This is my blood.. for the forgiveness of sins" (Matthew 26:26,28). On the cross, Jesus' body was killed, his blood was shed, for the sins of the world. When we receive his body and blood in Communion, we also receive that forgiveness! But there's more. It's our sin that makes us die. But because Jesus has forgiven our sins, death can't hurt us anymore; nothing can keep us out of heaven. Holy Communion strengthens our assurance about the eternal life that is ours right now by faith in Christ Jesus.
Did You Know? 1 Corinthians 12:1 What are spiritual gifts? Spiritual gifts are special abilities the Holy Spirit gives to Christians. Spiritual gifts let us help other people become stronger Christians. There are many different kinds of spiritual gifts.
Let's Live It! 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 Love Is--God's perfect love empowers us to love him and others. Read 1 Corinthians 13:4-7. This passage explains something of how, by the power of God, a loving person will treat others.
Write on a different 3 x5 card each thing these verses say Christian love is. At mealtime, when your whole family is together, draw one of the cards. Have each person tell about a time when someone showed this kind of love to him or her.
Did You Know? 1 Corinthians 4:23 What is speaking in tongues? Speaking in tongues is a spiritual gift that let early Christians speak in unknown languages. Paul had this gift. But Paul said that it is better for people with this spiritual gift to use ordinary talk in church, so everyone can understand what they are saying.
Words to Remember 1 Corinthians 15:57 Thanks be to God! He gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
Life in Bible Times- A House Church--The homes wealthy Christians like Aquila and Priscilla (see 1 Corinthians 16:19) were large, with a garden-like area in the middle. Christians went to homes like these to worship instead of to church buildings." Here is a version of House Churches Today and Talk of the Two Houses of Israel. Grandma wanted a picture of a stone with stucco square house with an entrance to an open garden in the middle much like a fort with rooms in the corners and an open covered area of another corner with a shed on the outside. Some homes in the village my husband came from in Mexico are formed this way. I could not find a picture of them. However, I hope the two video's I pulled up are knowledgeable.
Next Grandma will cover 2 Corinthians of the Bible starting with the Introduction from Faith Alive and then the exercises. Following is the Introduction:
How...does 2 Corinthians show us God's love? The book of 2 Corinthians shows the power of God's love to accomplish its wonderful purposes. In 1 Corinthians, Paul was force to condemn the church for many sins and one man especially for terrible sexual sin (1 Corinthians 5:1-13). By the time Paul wrote 2 Corinthians, though, God's warning had brought the people to repentance. Now God's Word speaks gentle comfort and forgiveness.
Whom...did God inspire to write this book? The apostle Paul wrote 2 Corinthians. This is the third of thirteen books by Paul appearing in the Bible.
To Whom...was this letter first written? This book is the second letter that Paul sent to Christians in the city of Corinth, in Greece.
When...was this letter written? This book was written about A.D. 58 from Macedonia.
What...special messages does this book give us? The book of 2 Corinthians lets the Corinthians know that God is continuing to love and care for them despite their sins and sufferings. This is one of the Bible's most comforting books for anyone who is hurting.
       ...are some important teachings in this book?
Our prayers help leaders.                                2 Corinthians 1:8-11
Forgive those who repent.                                2 Corinthians 2:5-11
We are reconciled to God.                               2 Corinthians 5:11-21
God loves a cheerful giver.                               2 Corinthians 9:6-15
Help for the weak.                                           2 Corinthians 12:7-10
Now follow the exercises starting with "Life In Bible Times-Corinth--Corinth was an important port city lying on a narrow strip of land between two seas. Cargoes were landed at Corinth and carried overland to the other sea.
Let's Live It! 2 Corinthians 1:8-11 He Has Delivered Us, Too--Read 2 Corinthians 1:8-11. To find out about the "deadly peril" Paul was in, read 2 Corinthians 11:23-29.
Most people have hardships and even feel despair at times. Ask your mom or dad or your grandparents if God has delivered them from any really hard times. Ask them to tell you about what happened.
It is good to know that God, who delivered your mom and dad, will deliver you too.
Words to Remember 2 Corinthians 3:18 We ... are being transformed into his likeness.
Let's Live It! 2 Corinthians 3:1-3 Reading God's Mail--How does God send letters to people today? Read 2 Corinthians 3:1-3 to find out. Christians can be a letter from Christ by doing what is right, by loving others, and by telling others about Jesus.
Think about it...what kind of letter are you? What do your friends and relatives see and think bout Jesus when they look at you?
Life In Bible Times-Treasure!--Archaeologists have found treasures of silver in cheap clay pots. Clay pots were common, and thousands were made. But they were sometimes used to store the valuable and the precious.
Did You Know? 2 Corinthians 5:20 What is reconciliation? To reconcile means to get together again as friends. Jesus died for our sins so we could get together with God and be his friends. God wants us to tell our friends about Jesus, so they can become God's friends too.
Life in Bible Times-Sending a Letter--Many New Testament books were letters that were sent to churches. There was no post office. People wrapped up the letters carefully, tied the, and asked travelers to take them to friends.
Did You Know? 2 Corinthians 8:14 Why do Christians give? Paul urged Christians to give to help other Christians who were hungry. Christians are not to give offerings because they have to, but because God has given so generously to them.
Let's Live It! 2 Corinthians 9:6-11 Why Give?--God wants us to give some of our money to help others. And he wants us to do it cheerfully. He promises, then, to make sure we always have enough. Read 2 Corinthians 9:6-11.
Giving is something everyone can do. Do you have an allowance or a job for which you get paid? After reading these verses, how much of your allowance can you give cheerfully?
Let's Live It! 2 Corinthians 12:7-10 What Makes Us Strong--"I can't," ten-year-old Jimmy wailed. "I just can't do it." Jimmy could be talking about one of these things: Telling the neighbors he broke their window. Taking a hard test at school. Memorizing the multiplication tables. Going back to school after everyone had laughed at him. Standing up in front of everyone at church to recite a poem he memorized. If you were to say, "I can't do it," what would you probably be talking about?
Read 2 Corinthians 12:7-10. Perhaps feeling weak might make you more likely to ask God for help. What will happen if Jimmy asks God to help him with the situations listed above?"
Now Grandma will move on to the Calendar History in Book (1). In starting off with April 24 Book (1) says it is Children's Day in Iceland. It says it also World Day for Laboratory Animals.
In 1822 James Pierpont, American composer noted for "Jingle Bells", was born. In 1911 Evaline Ness, children's author, was born.
In 1800 The Library of Congress was established with a fund of $5,000. Book (1) says, "In 1800, when
President John Adams signed the bill moving the nation's capital from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C., he also approved funding for a reference library for Congress. Today, the Library of Congress has more than 81 million items. One of its most precious items is a copy of the Gutenberg Bible. How many items does your school library have? Challenge students to find the most unusual or valuable item in the collection.
Then in 1833 The Soda Fountain was patented. Next Grandma must cover April 25th and 26th.
April 25th is Friday and in 1874 Guglielmo Marconi, Italian Inventor of wireless telegraphy, was born. In 1927 Alvin Schwartz, children's author, was born.
In 1507 The German geographer Martin Waldseemuller published the First Map of the New World, which he name "America" in the mistaken belief that it had been discovered by Amerigo Vespucci. In 1719 The first edition of Robinson Crusoe was published. In 1805 Lewis and Clark reached the junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. In 1859 Construction began on the Suez Canal.
April 26th which is Saturday is also part of this weeks lessons. It has more activities in it. In 1785 John James Audubon, American ornithologist and artist, was born. Book (1) says, " John James Audubon used watercolors to paint wild birds of 19th-century America. His Birds of America contained 435 colored engravings. Challenge your students to look through a copy of this volume and find a bird that no longer exists. Then have the kids investigate why the species disappeared."
In 1900 Charles Richter, American seismologist who developed a 10-point scale for measuring earthquake intensity, was born. Then in 1935 Patricia Reilly Giff, children's author, was born. Book (1) says, " Author Patricia Reilly Giff taught school for nearly 20 years before writing her first story. One of her motivations for becoming a writer was to make children laugh. Why is it important to laugh? Have your (children) make a ... list of authors and books that make them laugh."
In 1607 Captain John Smith and 150 colonists aboard three vessels arrived at Cape Henry, Va., from Portsmouth, England. Then in 1777 Sybil Ludington, 16, rode horseback 40 miles to inform patriot militias of the British attack on Danbury, Conn. Book (1) says, "After the British raided nearby Danbury, Conn., Sybil Ludington rode her horse through the night to muster volunteers to meet the Redcoat threat. Have your (children) write a story detailing a similar act of heroism with a modern-day setting."
Last in 1865 Lincoln assassin John Wilkes Booth was cornered in a barn near Bowling Green, Va., and shot.
Now Grandma will begin some lessons on Australia and possibly cover at least one book from there.
Grandma is obtaining her information about Australia from her book (2) and Youtube. "Australia is the smallest continent and the only continent that is also a country. Australia lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere and is located between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and southeast of Asia. Because of its location under the equator, the continent is sometimes referred to as being "down under." Australia is divided into six states and two territories.
Australia is the world's driest continent. It is covered mainly by deserts and dry grasslands. Artesian wells are an important source of water. Most of the people live along the eastern coastline and are of British ancestry.
Australia has three main land areas. The Eastern Highlands area, sometimes called the Great Dividing Range, is located along the Eastern coastline. It extends into Tasmania and is the most populated area of the continent. This region is covered by rich farmland. The Australian Alps, a mountain range formed by volcanic eruptions, also extend through this region.
The Central Lowlands area is generally a flat region. Wheat is grown in the southern part of this region. The rest of the region is too hot and dry to grow crops. The dry, grassy area is good for grazing. Desert land also exists in this region.
The Western Plateau covers two thirds of Australia. Deserts cover the central area, while grassy, grazing areas are found in the northeastern part. One third of Australia is covered by deserts. One of the most spectacular land formations, the Ayers Rock, is located in this region. Paintings by the Aborigines, the first known inhabitants of Australia, cover the walls of caves in this formation.
The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, is located off the northeast coastline. Over 400 species of coral and hundreds of rare forms of sea life inhabit this reef, which stretches over 1200 miles.
Many unique animals live on this continent. They include the echidna and platypus, which are egg-laying mammals. Kangaroos, koalas, wombats, and wallabies are marsupials that live in Australia.
Australia is the world's leading exporter of wool. There are nine sheep to every person on this continent. Other major farm products include cattle, wheat, sugar cane, and fruit. The continent also is a leading producer of bauxite. Most of the world's high-quality opals come from Australian mines.
Australia Regions
New South Wales
South  Australia
Western Australia
Mainland Territories
Australian Capital Territory
Northern Territory
Other Territories
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Australian Antarctic Territory
Christmas Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Heard and McDonald Islands
Norfolk Island
More Topics to Research
Aborigines                          Emu                                 Colombo Plan
Boomerang                         Ayers Rock                       Australian Terrier
Sheep raising                      Mt. Kosciusko                   Bottle tree
Coral Sea                            Seasons                           Polyp
Marsupials                          Australian Cattle Dog          Indian Ocean
Great Victoria Desert           Platypus                            Natural Pearls
Tasman Sea                        Snowy Mountain Scheme   Education (in remote areas)
ANZUS                               Royal Flying Doctor Service
Australian Flag                    The language"
Now Link to Australia1 for some information.
Some activities to do Concerning Australia are as follows from book (2):
As Different As Night and Day
List 10 ways these continents are different.
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It's How You Play the Game
The climate of Australia is very mild in most areas. This makes it possible for the
people to enjoy many types of sports. Australians are highly competitive and believe strongly in good sportsmanship. Since most of the people live near the coast, Australians enjoy a variety of water sports. Some of the most popular activities, however, are the team sports of cricket, soccer, and rugby. These games were brought to Australia by settlers from Great Britain.
Select a team sport played in Australia. Write a paragraph describing the game. Include the number of players required and the rules of the game. Share your description with a friend.
8th Wonder of the World
The Great Barrier Reef, sometimes called the "eight wonder of the world, " is the largest chain of coral reefs on earth. Some scientists believe that the reef is millions of years old. It is located off the northeast coast of Australia. A large variety of sea life inhabits the reef. It is illegal to take any of the coral.
Read about this special place. Choose one life form that makes the reef its home. Make a cutout of the species and glue it to a piece of paper on which you have written a short descriptive paragraph. Attach your paper to a wall or a poster board.
All oceans have currents. These are the general movements of the water. To find out more about currents and the directions they travel, scientists throw drift bottles into the oceans and trace their routes. Bottles have also been used to signal for help. The notes in the bottles are called S.O.S (Save Our Ship) messages.
Pretend you have been shipwrecked along the coast of Australia in the town of _________________.
Write an S.O.S. message on the "bottle." Include your location (town, latitude, and longitude), the crops that are grown in the region, and two native animals that you have seen.
Say Cheese
You have been selected to "photograph" a fiction book for a major magazine. After reading the book, complete two "photos" of events from the story that would definitely not happen in real life Complete two "photos" of events that could happen in real life. If you read a realistic fiction book, complete four "photos" of events that could happen in real life. Write a caption for each picture. Draw a pretend picture on plain paper of each type of events. Label it with the Name of the book, author of the book, main characters, and the setting
Aboriginal Art
Study some of the Natives art and design some of your own; for Grandma will have to stop here and give you activities for two books on Monday. Take care.