Shopping Cart
Your Cart is Empty
Quantity:
Subtotal
Taxes
Shipping
Total
There was an error with PayPalClick here to try again
CelebrateThank you for your business!You should be receiving an order confirmation from Paypal shortly.Exit Shopping Cart

Grandma's Place A Natural Learning Center

www.m.granmaplcpknesa.com

Grandma's Place of Natural Learning Center

Is The Best Place for Learning

Blog

2nd Day of Summer Lessons

Posted on July 17, 2014 at 9:38 PM Comments comments (10)
Dear folks:
There is something I feel I must explain to you that has been worrying me(Grandma). I am worried you will think I am a really crazy using Grandma instead of I to everything. When I started my blogging, I was trying to use myself as my granddaughter's Grandma and as if she was doing the typing, but she felt it was really not her so it did not feel comfortable. However, using the name Grandma in place of myself felt right. I still have trouble deciding to relate it as I or she in my blogs; therefore, you may find me using both at times which I think is ok in the circumstances.
 
Grandma will start out with the Calendar History today by finishing May up. I may wait on some other things I want to get started also for tomorrow. It has been a pretty stressful day for Grandma today.
May 24 birthdays begin with one in 1816 of Emanuel Leutze, German-born American painter. It has a lesson with it called "Historical painting? Your (children) might not have heard of Emanuel Leutze, but many have probably seen his most famous painting, Washington Crossing the Delaware. The painting depicts George Washington's Christmas Eve, 1776, crossing of the Delaware River to surprise the Hessians at Trenton, N.J. Show your students a reproduction of the painting, which Leutze finished in 1850, and ask whether they think it represents a historically accurate view. For instance, is it likely that Washington would have been standing in the boat? Why not? Why then, would Leutze choose to paint him in this posture? Why aren't contemporary leaders painted in a similar fashion?"
 
The next birthday happened in 1941 when Bob Dylan (real name: Robert Zimmerman), American singer and songwriter, was born. Then in 1944 Frank Oz, puppeteer, was born. Book (1) says in "Puppet plays" To have your children bring out the puppets or stuffed animals and create stories involving them. Then have them present their "puppet plays" to an audience of an old folks home, hospital, day care, etc. Videotape the presentations so the children can share their creativity.
 
The events for May 24 include that of
 
1775 in which John Hancock was elected president of the Continental Congress;
 
1844 Samuel F.B. Morse transmitted the First Telegraph Message.
"What hath God wrought?";
 
1869 John Wesley Powell led the First Expedition down the Grand Canyon.
 
Book (1) writes upon it under "Grand Canyon travelers, Ask your students to imagine they'll be traveling to the Grand Canyon. What kinds of items (supplies, recreational materials) will they need to pack? What is the weather like this time of year? How much will the trip cost?(other trips as well) Encourage the kids to conduct research so they can actually plan an itinerary. Perhaps they might even call travel agents for brochures and trip prices. On the day of the "trip," decorate the classroom with appropriate materials. Then show the students a film about the Grand Canyon."
 
The rest of the events for May 24 in that of
 
1883 The Brooklyn Bridge opened. At 1,595 feet, it was the longest
single-span suspension bridge in the world.
 
In 1935 Major League Baseball's First Night Game took place in
Cincinnati, with the Reds hosting the Philadelphia Phillies.
 
1968 Chief, the Last Horse of the U.S Cavalry, died.
 
1976 The Concorde Supersonic Jet began regular 4-hour flights
between Paris and Washington, D.C.
 
May 25th birthdays include that of 1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American poet and essayist. An activity from Book (1) says in "Good advice that Ralph Waldo Emerson was a philosopher as well as a poet and essayist. Ask your students what they think Emerson meant when he said:
  • "Write it on your heart that every day is the best day in the year."
  • "Finish every day and be done with it."
  • "You have done what you could."
What advice for daily living would your students give? Compile their thoughts into a class booklet."
 
In 1878 Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, American tap dancer, was born.
 
1920 Martha Alexander, children's author, was born.
 
1929 Beverly sills, American opera singer, was born.
 
The Events for May 25 are as follows:
 
1539 Francisca Hinestrosa arrived at Tampa Bay and became the
First Woman Colonist in the in the New World.
 
1787 The First Regular Session of the American Constitutional
Convention was held in Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pa.
 
1935 Jesse Owens Broke Five World Records and tied a sixth--in only 45 minutes.
 
Book (1) says in "Banner days- Tell your (children) that Jesse Owens had a banner day while competing in the Big 10 Championships at Ann Arbor, Mich. Between 3:15 and 4:00 p.m., he tied one world record (for the 100-yard dash) and broke five others: for the long jump, the 200-meter and 220-yard dashes, and the 200-meter and 220-yard low hurdles. (He ran only the 220-yard events, but his times were faster than the world records too.) The next time your (children) read a biography, ask them to find a banner day in the subject's life and make a report on it."
 
1935 Babe Ruth hit his 714th and final home run.
 
1961 President John F. Kennedy called for the nation to Put a Man
On the Moon by the end of the 1960s.
 
Book (1) says in "Calls for action-In response to President Kennedy's call for action, the United States succeeded in landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s. If your (children) were president, what would they ask the nation to do by the end of this decade? Make a list of their suggestions, then have the kids send their list (along with a letter) to the editor of a local newspaper. (Grandma says to print it in their own.)"
 
1976 White Cascade, the World's Largest Mobile, was installed at the
Federal Reserve Bank in Philadelphia.
 
1986 More than 5 million Americans formed a Human Chain Across
the Country. Proceeds from Hands Across America ($10 per person)
went to the homeless.
 
May 25 is also African Liberation Day:National; National Missing
Children's Day and National Tap Dance Day.
 
 
May 26 of Book (1) starts out with a birthday in
 
1837 of Washington A. Roebling, American army officer and
chief engineer of the Brooklyn Bridge.
 
Then in 1886 Al Jolson, Russian-born American actor
and singer, was born.
 
 In 1934 Sheila Greenwald, children's author, was born.
 
1951 Sally Ride, U.S. astronaut who became the first
American woman in space.
 
Book (1) gives the activity "What a Ride!- Sally Ride was the first American woman in space as well as the youngest American astronaut ever to orbit the earth. Ride's many interests as she was growing up included playing team sports. Ask your (children) if they think shuttle astronauts need to be "team players." Why? Do your (children) consider themselves team players? Have the kids suggest qualities that make a team player successful, then list adjectives to describe those qualities." ( This activity and questions are very important and beneficial to home schoolers because the public system feels their system is the answer to all learning because of the social contact the children have with other children. Grandma does not feel their concept is all correct especially now days when so much corruption is happening in our schools and how sports can cast out other qualities in the success of living. Some children can be very qualified in many careers or self-employed in many ways without having to be an athletic. Yes it teaches to give and take as well as push for success as working as a group but what happens if someone is left out and feels inferior. What happens to people when that is the only thing that matters and only a few of it go to the top. Is it really best so much money goes into such a display of people outdoing others and many hurt doing it. Also discuss other ways of success without having to be up with Miss Snutty or Mr. Hotshot. Being able to talk to people and socialize with others can be obtained in many ways. It is beneficial to you as a family to discuss them.)
 
The following events happened on May 26:
 
595BC An eclipse of the Sun Stopped a Battle between two warring tribes,
the Lydians and the Medes, in the Middle East.
 
1865 The Last Confederate Troops Surrendered at Shreveport, La.
 
Book (1) says in "War between the states-Tell your (children) that the Civil War was the most destructive wars in U.S. history. Both sides suffered appalling casualties, and much of the countryside was destroyed. The war caused economic disaster for the countryside was destroyed. The war caused economic disaster for the South, and relations between the North and South remained strained for more than a century. Quiz your (children) on what they know about this part of our nation's history. When did the war start? Who was president? What major issues were the North and South fighting over? Have the dis work in teams to prepare a chronology of events, listing three major events for each year from 1861 through 1865."
 
1868 By one vote, the U.S. Senate Acquitted President Andrew
Johnson of Impeachment Charges.
 
1941 The American Flag House, Betsy Ross's home, was donated
to the city of Philadelphia.
 
1969 The Apollo 10 Crew Logged the Fastest Speed--24,791mph--in
the history of human travel.
 
1978 Legalized Casino Gambling began in Atlantic City, N.J.
 
 
May 27 birthdays include the following:
 
1818 Amelia Bloomer, American women's rights
crusader after whom "bloomers" were named.
 
1819 Julia Ward Howe, American reformer who wrote
the words to "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"
 
1837 James "Wild Bill" Hickok, American scout and frontier Marshall
 
1894 Dashiell Hammett, American detective author
 
1907 Rachel Carson, American biologist and writer
 
The Events included are as follows:
 
1703 Czar Peter the Great of Russia, founded St. Petersburg,
which became the new capital of Russia.
 
Book (1) activity is "So many names-Tell your (children) that in 1914, the city of St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd. In 1924, its name was changed again--to Leningrad. Then in 1991, its original name was restored. Ask your (children) to locate this city on a map. Then challenge them to discover why it has had so many different names."
 
1919 Lt. Commander Albert C. Read and his five-member crew
completed the First Transatlantic Flight in a Navy Seaplane.
 
1921 Afghanistan celebrated its independence from Great Britain.
 
1931 Auguste Piccard became the First man to Reach the Stratosphere
in a Balloon.
 
Book (1) has an activity around this event called "Up, up and away!-Your (children) will enjoy learning about ballooning by making models of balloons. Contact a local florist for free or inexpensive helium balloons." (unless you have a machine to blow them up your self) Then have the children design gondola's to be draped over the balloons with colorful scarves or square materials that can carry a small object in them. Teach them to conserve the weight for each balloon to carry. Tie the balloons down with heavy thread or yarn. Even though a safe room would be best to let them loose in you can conduct the experiment outside if you do not expect to get your balloon back. Watch and see how far each balloon goes or is the fastest up.
 
Book (57) has a unit on Balloons with these activities:
  • Research the balloon from ancient China to today. Report your findings in a booklet entitled "All About Balloons."
  • For a hair-raising experience, rub a balloon on a woolen surface. Then hold it near your head. Tell what happens and why.
  • Why is Charles Goodyear considered the father of the toy balloon? Write a short biography telling his accomplishments.
  • Place a water balloon in the freezer overnight. Measure it before and after it is frozen. What did you discover? Inflate a balloon, pinch it closed, then let it go. What happens and why? Experiment to see if you can control the flight of the balloon. What scientific principle does this demonstrate?
  • After measuring the circumference of an inflated balloon, place it in the freezer for e0 minutes. What do you think will happen? Made a prediction. Measure it again when you take it out. Explain the difference.
  • What if you were pulled into a giant balloon and floated away? Write about your adventure.
  • Can you stick a pin in a balloon without popping it? What happens if you use a piece of tape? Experiment.
  • Read The Red Balloon or view the film. Name a fun incident, an exciting scene, and the part you like best. What is the message about friendship?
  • Pour 1.2 cup of vinegar into a bottle and put 1 tablespoon of baking soda into a balloon. Place the end of the balloon over the top of the bottle. What causes the chemical reaction?
  • Write a story about the first balloon.
  • Why do helium-filled balloons float at the end of a string, while balloons you blow up stay on the ground?
  • Read, memorize, and illustrate Shel Silverstein's poem, "Eight Balloons," in A Light in the Attic.
  • Read chapter five in Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing by Judy Blume. What were Fudge and his friends supposed to do with the balloons? Think of 10 games featuring balloons that could be played at a party.
  • Write a news article about the incident with the giant balloon that answers the questions who, what, when, where, why, and how.
  • Write a story or poem that includes some or all of the following words: whoosh, pop, hiss, splat, and swish.
  • How did Winnie-the-Pooh plan to get honey with a blue balloon? Read the first chapter of Winnie-the -Pooh to find out how successful he was Retell Pooh's episode at the end of a string.
  • Write an autobiography of a balloon. Include memorable events, exciting escapades, and near-fatal episodes in your life as a balloon.
  • Write a limerick about a balloon, the man in the moon, or a happy tune. Be sure one line ends with the word balloons.
  • If Paul Bunyan had a balloon, what would it be like? Write a tall tale with lots of exaggeration.
  • Play catch with a water balloon.
  • Compile a booklet of colorful metaphors, each beginning with "A balloon is..."
  • Locate and follow the directions for making an origami paper balloon.
  • Create similes using the words like or as to make balloon-related comparisons: Air escaping from a balloon sounds like... When I hear a balloon pop, I jump like a ....
  • Use a balloon as the form to make a papier-mâché animal. Add legs, ears, and other details.
  • Describe a balloon using your senses. How does it look, feel, smell, taste, and sound? Use the list of words and phrases to compose a poem.
  • Learn how to twist and turn balloons to make balloon animals.
  • Make an ornament by dipping a length of yarn, lace, string, or ribbon into liquid starch and wrapping it around an inflated balloon. When it is dry, pop the balloon.
  • Make a class book with a hole in each page. On the inside back cover, glue a real balloon so it can be seen through the holes. Draw pictures of different scenes and events incorporating the balloon.
 
1937 The Golden Gate Bridge, which spans San Francisco Bay, opened.
 
Book (1) says in "Building bridges-Tell your (children) that the Golden Gate Bridge took 4 years to build and cost just under $35 million. Since it opened, more than 1 billion cars have crossed it. Challenge your (children) to find out more about the Golden Gate Bridge, then build their own suspension bridge.  ... building the roadway, and so on. For the bridge materials, (the children) can use drinking straws and yarn. Straight pins or staples can hold the straws together. Craft sticks or folded construction paper can serve as the roadway." Have fun use your own ideas also.
 
1977 Gerhards Knoll Swam for 7 Hours and 53 Minutes, the longest
nonstop crawl.
 
May 27 is also Children's Day in (Nigeria)
 
We move onto May 28 with the following birthdays:
 
1807 Jean Louis Agassiz, Swiss-American naturalist who made
significant contributions in animal classification.
 
1888 Jim Thorpe, American athlete
 
Book (1) activity is called "World's greatest athlete-Jim Thorpe--best known for winning the decathlon and pentathlon at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm--was of Native American ancestry. Tell your (children) that his tribal name, Wa Tho Huck, means Bright Path. From a young age, Thorpe loved and excelled at sports. After his triumphant Olympic performance, the king of Sweden called him "the greatest athlete in the world." Who do your (children) feel is the world's best living athlete? Have the kids write letters nominating their chosen athlete for a classroom Hall of Fame. ...
 
1908 Ian Fleming, British author who wrote the children's book
Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang as well as James Bond novels
 
1934 Dionne Quintuplet, Canadian quintuplets who became the world's
 first quintuplets to survive infancy
 
Events for May 28 include the following:
 
1798 President John Adams was empowered by Congress to
Recruit an Army of 10,000 Volunteers
 
1892 John Muir organized the Sierra Club.
 
1929 On with the Show, The first Color Movie, was released.
 
Book (1) gives the activity "Movie mania-Have your (children) conduct a ...poll to determine ...favorite movie of all time. Encourage the children to use computers to record their data and graph the results. Were all the movies named filmed in color?"
 
1959 Navy divers rescued Able and Baker, Two Astronaut Monkeys
that had flown inside a Jupiter rocket.
 
1967 Sir Francis Chichester completed the First Solo Trip
Around the World by Boat.
 
1975 The First Whooping Crane Born in Captivity hatched in
Laurel, MD.
 
Book (1) writes in "Saving the species-Invite your (children) to research the whooping crane and other endangered animals. Then have them use their data to crate posters building awareness about animals facing extinction. Display the posters in the hallway ...(somewhere).(The children) can also locate information about organizations that protect certain species, then spearhead a ...campaign to help save one of these animals." (Grandma helped Environmental Defense Fund-EDF a little but that is all she knows of for now. The President of it is Fred Krupp.)
 
 
May 29 starts out the following birthdays:
 
1736 Patrick Henry, American orator and patriot
 
1903 Bob Hope, American comedian
 
Book (1) writes in "Bob Hope-fuls- To celebrate the birthday of comedian Bob Hope, show your (children) highlights from his may television shows, making sure to include some of his opening monologues. These monologues usually included topical jokes aimed at the president and other people in the news. Next, give the children a chance to review the current day's headlines. Then have your 21st-century Hope-fuls prepare and deliver their own 90-second "opening monologues" for (you)."
 
1917 John F. Kennedy, 25th president of the United States
 
1939 Al Unser, American auto racer
 
The events for the day are as follows:
 
1790 Rhode Island became the 13th state.
 
1848 Wisconsin became the 30th state.
 
1916 The Official Flag of the President of the United States was adopted.
 
1953 Sir Edward Hillary and Tenzing Norkay became the First
People to Reach the Summit of Mt. Everest.
 
Book (1) says in "Flags at the summit-Tell your (children) that during the ascent of Mr. Everest, Tenzing Norkay had four flags--representing Nepal, Great Britain, India, and the United Nations--wrapped around the handle of his ice ax. Those flags were significant because Tenzing was born in Nepal; Hillary, in New Zealand, a part of the British Commonwealth; and Colonel John Hunt, the leader of the expedition, in India. Ask your (children) what they think the U.N. flag signified. (It symbolized international peace.) Then have them look up the word vexillology (the study of flags) in the dictionary.
 
1988 Members of the U.S. Forest Service built a 10-Foot_High Platform for Nesting Peregrine Falcons on top of a cliff near Bergland, Mich.
 
Book (1) states in "Rescuing the peregrine-Peregrine falcons almost disappeared from the United States. In one of a number of efforts to reintroduce the birds, the U. S. Forest Service carried a ton of lumber--via helicopter--to a remote location outside Bergland, Mich. Workers then scaled a 200-foot cliff and built a 10-foot-high platform for six peregrine falcons that had been hatched and raised at the University of Minnesota. Have your students draw a food web that includes the peregrine. Can they discover why these falcons almost died out?"
 
 
May 30 starts with the following birthdays:
 
1908 Mel Blanc, actor who provided the voice for Bugs Bunny,
Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, and other cartoon characters
 
1912 Millicent Selsam, children's author
 
1934 Alexsei Leonov, Soviet cosmonaut who became the first man to walk in space
 
The Events for May 30 are then as follows:
 
1848 The Ice Cream Freezer was patented by William G. Young.
 
Book (1) writes "Frozen treats-In recognition of William G. Young's patent for the ice cream freezer, invite your (children) to create their own ice cream. They'll need 1 cup cold milk or cream, 1/4 cup sugar, 1/4 tsp. flavoring (vanilla, peppermint, or maple), a clean soup can, an empty cottage cheese container, ice, 1/4 cup salt, and a metal spoon. Have the kids place all the ingredients--except the salt--into the soup can. Then have them fill the cottage cheese container with ice, add the salt to the ice, and set the soup can inside the container. Next tell the children to stir the mixture with the metal spoon, making sure to regularly scrape down the sides. After 15 to 20 minutes, they should have ice cream. Ask your students: How long does it take before the milk mixture begins to change? What changes occur? What are the advantages of an ice cream maker?"
 
1848 Maria Mitchell became the First Woman elected to the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
 
1854 Kansas and Nebraska became U.S. territories.
 
Book (1) writes in "Comparing states-Ask your (children) to locate Kansas and Nebraska on a U.S. map, then find each state's capital city. Next, challenge the kids to discover what is unique about Nebraska's legislature. (It is the nation's only unicameral, or one-house, legislature.)"
 
1868 Memorial Day was first observed.
 
1901 The Hall of Fame For Great Americans was dedicated.
 
1911 The First 500-Mile Auto Race took place at the Indianapolis Speedway.
 
Book (1) says in "Speedy racers- In 1911, the average speed of the winning car at the Indianapolis 500 was 74.59 mph. Have your (children) find out the average speed of this year's winner. Then have them use an almanac to find the average speeds of previous Indianapolis 500 winners. Have the kids show the results on a graph."
 
1921 The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was dedicated at Arlington National Cemetery.
 
1922 The Lincoln Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C.
 
1989 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade became the First Movie to
sell $10 million in Tickets on its Opening Day.
 
 
May 31st is the last day Grandma will put on this day. The birthdays are as follows:
 
1819 Walt Whitman, American poet
 
Book (1) says in "Picturing poetry-To celebrate Walt Whitman's birthday, read some of his poems out loud while your (children) try to visualize the scene being described. Afterward, ask each (child) to select and illustrate a favorite poem, to the illustration. Repeat the procedure once more, then pass the drawing back to the original artist. What elements did the (others) add?"
 
1893 Elizabeth Coatsworth, children's author.
 
1930 Clint Eastwood, American actor
 
May 31 Events are the following:
 
1853 An expedition led by Elisha Kane became the First American Expedition to Reach the Arctic Circle.
 
1868 James Moore won the Earliest Recorded Bicycle Race.
 
1880 The First Bicycle Society, the League of American Wheelmen, was formed.
 
1889 The Johnstown Flood occurred when a dam above the Pennsylvania
town broke, submerging the town under 30 feet of water. Nearly 2,300
people were killed in the disaster.
 
1913 The Seventeenth Amendment, providing for the direct election of
U.S senators, was ratified.
 
1919 The First Wedding in an Airplane took place.
 
1964 The San Francisco Giants and the New York Mets played the
Longest Baseball Game in the History of the
 National League (7 hours, 23 minutes).
 
Book (1) presents the math problem "Baseball Marathon-Here's a math problem for your (children): On this day in 1964, the Giants and the Mets played a doubleheader that lasted a total of 9 hours and 52 minutes. The Giants won the second game in the 23rd inning after a record 7 hours and 23 minutes. How long did the first game take?"
 
1985 Tornadoes With Winds estimated at 260 mph ripped
through parts of Ohio and Pennsylvania.
 
Book (1) presents this activity "Terrible twisters-Tell your (children) that the United States experiences more tornadoes that any other country. But most aren't as violent as the ones that hit Ohio and Pennsylvania in 1985. Give each of your (children) a map of the United States, then have them color in "Tornado Alley"--a section running from Texas to Nebraska--where almost one-third of all the tornadoes in this country occur. Can your (children) figure out why this area is so prone to twisters?"
 
Grandma will have more tomorrow.

Day 1 of the Summer Session

Posted on July 15, 2014 at 3:00 AM Comments comments (13)
Dear Folks:
Apparently Grandma was trying to get up to May 24 of the Calendar History, Book (1 ). However I guess I did not catch May 23 which is just as well. Therefore, I will cover it now.
 
The First birthday on May 23 is in 1707 when Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist and founder of taxonomy, was born.
 Next in 1734, Dr. Franz Mesmer, German physician who developed a treatment called Mesmerism, which is the basis of the word mesmerize, was born.
 In 1824 Ambrose Everett Burnside, American Civil War general whose whiskers on the side of his face were called Burnsides and later sideburns, was born.
In 1910 Margaret Wise Brown, children's author, was born.
 
The events that happened on that day began in 1785 when In a letter, Benjamin Franklin wrote about his new invention, Bifocal Eyeglasses.
In 1788 South Caroline became the eight state.
In 1873Canada established the Northwest Mounted Police.
In 1903 Eleven-year-old William Frederick Price became the Youngest Soldier to enlist in the British Army in this century.
In 1984 C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, said there was solid evidence that Nonsmokers can suffer Lung Damage from Inhaling Other People's Cigarette Smoke.
In 1989 An Italian Interior Designer named Stefania Follini climbed Out of the Cave in Carlsbad, N.M., in which she had spent the previous 130 days.  
 
Activities included on this day in Book (1) are as follows:
"Plant classifications
Have your (children) look up the word taxonomy in the dictionary. Then encourage them to walk through their neighborhood to observe flowering plants, writing careful notes and making detailed drawings of the specimens they find. Have them use these observational records and their research skills to find the scientific names of their plants.
 
A state by any other name
South Carolina is nicknamed the Palmetto State. Have your (children) investigate their state's nickname. How did the nickname originate? Invite the dis to create a nickname for their hometown, then write a silly story explaining how the name came to be.
(Along with this activity Grandma would like the children to find anything they can about any of the states and do as planning a trip to travel through each state on a very long vacation.) 
 
Selecting pseudonyms
Margaret Wise Brown wrote stories about feeling lonesome, getting lost, and acting naughty or silly. She wrote more than 100 books in her career, some published under the pen names Golden MacDonald, Timothy Hay, and Juniper Sage. Have your (children) each write a story using one of the topics Brown often wrote about. Then have them choose their own pen names. Why did they select a particular name?"
 
These should go along with the ideas Grandma gave you in the summer introduction. This is it for today.

Summer Introduction

Posted on July 13, 2014 at 1:17 AM Comments comments (42)
Dear Folks:
     Here are the beginning of the summer lessons I promised you. I am sorry it has taken me so long to get them started. I am having my share of problems this summer. Grandma is at the point she felt you better be told straight that she feels the public schools would have been better to have left the classes running later into June and start after Labor Day. She feels these kinds of things are easier on the children. That it does not make sense and makes things stressful. She also feels it is easier on the parents. Therefore, she is going to be giving her lessons in that pattern. We will run these summer classes till the 1st of September and she will make sure her winter or fall classes start that way or do.
She will also still be giving you her books and finish Patricia Gallagher's helpful hints. I will also have an additional topic of etiquette to cover this summer also. I want to give more ideas on real estate and decorating also. I will also give the rest of the calendar history and famous people (7 to 8 days at a time). I hope you have started to review or started before July the American History, at least the revolution by starting the time line again, for the 4th of July. Else you may want to start it now.
I will be on vacation in August so you may not be able to reach Grandma during that time. I am sorry.
Grandma is also trying to get into more products. As I mentioned before I am always open for suggestions. I hope to get some more things going.
Learning for the summer should evolve around the Earth elements of Water, Air, and Land. Be sure to involve words, letters(for younger children), math with objects, crosswords, mazes, etc.Involve reading and researching, writing, art, and physical activity. Explain the elements of the Earth to the children and what can be in each. Then learn about each as the Air: What it is made of and what is effecting it right now as pollutants or bad chemicals. Learn how it effects our land and ourselves. Cover the same with the Land. Learn how it all effects the Land. Work into the plants and animals of the land including the insects and plants. Talk about what is in it. Talk about what is happening to our insects. Research about Monsanto, GMO;s pollutants, and organic planting. Flowers and other plants, forests, etc. Then learn about the water, animals and plants in it also. Learn about safety in the water, in our homes, and out and about.
Review the history through the time line and collect the rest Grandma will be providing. Decorate a room and learn measurements. Cooking teaches a lot.
Learn how to start sewing by first learning the tools used, materials, and parts of the machine. Practice by sewing two strips of material together.
Learn how to do rag rugs, sew pot holders together, aprons, curtains, pillow cases, quilts, doll clothes, covers for tables, and bibs.
Plant plants if you do not have a garden already. Plant seeds in pots. Beans and cantaloupe grow fast and work well for starters.
Have fun and enjoy what there is for summer. Grandma will try to give all she can. Must go for tonight. I will give more tomorrow night.

Day 180a

Posted on June 4, 2014 at 10:30 PM Comments comments (12)
This is the last Day for Grandma lessons given this school season! Grandma will move on to additions and extra material for the public. If she does not get directly back to the People who have made comments this year. I want them to know how much I appreciated their encouragement. I may not have gotten through the year without your help. Thank-you very much.
Grandma will be giving you the 1900's for January and February. She will also finish up May for you as part of the beginning of Summers lessons. Please stay tuned and who knows what we will make of it. Grandma is working on some more ideas. Take care.
 
 
Jan. 29, 1900 Baseball's American League was organized.
 
Jan. 10, 1901 The First Oil Strike in Texas was made.
 
"Black gold: The first oil strike was a gusher called Spindle top. It sent a huge fountain of oil spraying more than 100 feet above the derrick and almost drowned the drilling crew. The gusher would be seen for 10 miles. Have your (children) use road maps to find a location 10 miles from their (home)."
 
Jan. 19, 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt sent the First
Greeting Telegram, to King Edward VII in London.
 
"Whimsical telegrams: Ask your (children) to create telegrams for their favorite athlete, movie star, book or cartoon character, author, singer, politician, or other notable personality, living or dead." Next role play the telegrams as one being the receiver and the other the singer and then switch roles.
 
Jan. 5, 1905 The National Association of Audubon Societies was founded
 
Jan. 25, 1905 The World's Largest Diamond--3,106 carats--was
discovered in South Africa.
 
Jan. 1, 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt Shook Hands with
8,513 People at a New Year's function.
 
Jan. 21, 1908 A law was passed making it Illegal for a
Woman to Smoke in Public in New York City.
 
Jan. 24, 1908 Sir Robert Baden-Powell organized
the First Boy Scout Troop in England.
 
Jan. 10, 1911 The First Aerial Photograph was taken.
 
Jan. 18, 1911 Lieutenant Eugene Ely became the First Person
to Land a Plane on a Ship, the USS Pennsylvania.
 
Jan 6, 1912 New Mexico became the 47th state.
 
Jan 5, 1914 Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford announced the
adoption of a Minimum Wage of $5 a Day.
 
Jan. 14, 1914 Henry Ford's First Automobile
Assembly Line went into operation.
 
Jan. 12, 1915 The U.S. House of Representatives
Refused to Give Women the Right to Vote.
 
Jan. 25, 1915 Alexander Graham Bell made the First
Transcontinental Telephone Call, from New York to San Francisco.
 
Jan. 30, 1915 Congress created the U.S. Coast Guard.
 
Jan. 23, 1916 A 100° Temperature Variation (-44° F to 56° F)
occurred during a 24-hour period in Browning, Mont.
 
Jan. 24, 1916 The Supreme Court ruled Income Tax constitutional.
 
Jan. 30, 1917 The First Jazz Record was produced.
 
Jan. 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson delivered his Fourteen
Points Address, which outlined his ideas for a "peace of
justice" after World War I.
 
Jan. 26, 1918 To Save Meat and Grain for the War Effort, Americans
were asked to observe "wheat less Mondays and Wednesdays,
meatless Tuesdays, and pork less Thursdays and Saturdays."
 
"Saving...then and now: During World War I, Americans voluntarily gave up meats and grains on certain days of the week so that overseas troops would be well supplied. Today people are voluntarily taking action to save the environment. With your (children), develop a list of daily suggestions to help students and their families "live greener." For example.
*Monday: Turn off the lights, the radio, and the TV when you leave the room.
*Tuesday: Check faucets that might be leaking and set up a repair schedule.
*Wednesday: Save paper by writing on both sides.
*Thursday: Clean the lint catcher in the washer.
*Friday: Turn the thermostat down before going to sleep (or up for air conditioning or off in the morning hours.)"
 
Jan. 17, 1919 Popeye the Sailor made his debut as a
character in the comic strip "Thimble Theater."
 
"Mr. Spinach: As most of your (children) know, Popeye the Sailor gets his strength from eating spinach. Ask the kids to invent and name a comic-strip character who gets his strength from a different type of fruit or vegetable. Have (the children) work ...to create an interesting adventure for the character."
 
Jan. 16, 1920 The Eighteenth Amendment went into effect,
making it illegal to make or sell alcoholic beverages.
 
Jan. 31, 1920 Hockey player Joe Malone of the Quebec Bulldogs
scored a record-setting Seven Goals in a Single Game.
 
Jan. 24, 1922 Christian K Nelson patented the Eskimo Pie.
 
"Fun Food Combos: Christian K Nelson owned an ice cream and candy store in Iowa. One day, a young customer couldn't decide whether to buy ice cream or a chocolate candy bar. His dilemma got Nelson thinking about coating a slice of ice cream with chocolate. After months of experiments, he finally go the chocolate to stick. Nelson initially called his treat the "I-Scream Bar," but later changed the name to "Eskimo Pie." Ask your (children) to come up with food invention ideas of their own. How about vitamin-filled chewing gum? Or edible spoons made from pressed granola? Have the kids create a slogan or logo promoting their new product. Then invite them to share their ideas in a 1-minute commercial."
 
Jan. 25, 1924 The First Winter Olympics began in Chamonix, France.
 
Jan. 5, 1925 Nellie Taylor Ross became the First Female
Governor in the United States of Wyoming.
 
Jan. 22, 1926 The Children's Museum, the World's Largest
Museum for Kids, opened in Indianapolis, Ind.
 
"Just for kids: Ask your (children) what kinds of items they would include in a kids' museum. Would they pick only older items, or do they think items from today would deserve to be represented? Why? Have the kids tell about the museums they've visited."
 
Jan. 7, 1927 Abe Superstein founded the Harlem Globetrotters.
 
Jan. 7, 1927 Transatlantic Telephone Service Began
between New York and London.
 
"Private line: Miles of cable had to be laid on the ocean floor for the first transatlantic phone service. (The children) can create their own telephones for short-distance transmission of sound. Provide ...(the children) each with two paper cups, two paper clips, and about 10 feet of string. Have them poke a hole in the bottom of each cup, thread string through each hole, tie each end to a paper clip, and gently pull until a partner listens through the other. Ask the kids to replace the string with fishing line, wire, thread, and yarn. Which conducts sound the best?"
 
Jan. 15, 1927 George Young, a nearly penniless 17-year-old,
won $25,000 in A 16-hour Swimming Marathon.
 
Jan. 2, 1929 The United States and Canada agreed to preserve Niagara Falls.
 
Jan. 7, 1929 Tarzan of the Apes, by Edgar Rice Burroughs,
 first appeared in newspapers.
 
Jan. 9, 1929 The First School for Seeing Eye Dogs was founded.
 
Jan. 29, 1929 Seeing Eye, Inc. the first guide-dog foundation, was organized.
 
Jan. 21, 1930 The comic strip "Buck Rogers" premiered.
 
Jan. 22, 1930 Excavation for the Empire State Building began.
 
Jan. 12, 1932 Hattie W. Caraway of Arkansas became the
First Woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
 
Jan. 30, 1933 The radio show "The Lone Ranger" premiered.
 
Jan. 8, 1935 Professor Arthur Cobb Hardy invented the Spectrophotometer,
an instrument that describes over 2 million shades of color.
 
"Classifying colors: ...give each (child) a hole puncher, one crayon (not black) from an eight-color crayon box, and a few old magazines. Ask (them) to punch out holes they think are within the color family of their crayon. How many different shades of the color can they find in 15 minutes? Finish the activity by having each...glue its holes into a pattern that spells the color's name."
 
Jan. 11, 1935 Amelia Earhart became the first
woman to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean.
 
"Book buddies: Amelia Earhart loved adventure--and books. She and her sister Muriel often took turns reading aloud to each other while doing chores, such as washing dishes and sweeping floors. Have (the children) make a list of times they could read with others while doing chores or errands. ... ."
 
Jan. 29, 1936 The Baseball Hall of Fame was established in
Cooperstown, N.Y., and the first five members were inducted.
 
Jan. 3, 1938 The March of Dimes was organized.
 
Jan. 1, 1939 The First Flea Laboratory opened in San Francisco, Calif.
 
Jan. 30, 1940 The First Social Security Checks were delivered.
 
Jan. 6, 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt made his Four Freedoms Speech.
He advocated freedom of worship, freedom of speech,
freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
 
"Freedom in focus: Which of Franklin D. Roosevelt's "four essential human freedoms" do your (children) think is the most important? Have them work in small groups to decide on a new freedom to add to the list. Finally, ask the kids to suggest freedoms that specific groups should have. For example, what freedoms should children have?"
 
Jan. 6, 1942 Pan American Airlines achieved the
First Around-The-World Commercial flight.
 
Jan. 5, 1943 American botanist George Washington Carver died.
 
"Peanut power: When the botanist and teacher George Washington Carver went to work at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, many farmers in the South were encountering severe difficulties. Year after year of cotton cultivation had depleted the soil. Carver began searching for solutions. He encouraged farmers to diversify their crops by planting legumes, which helped restore nitrogen to the soil. And he discovered that the sweet potato and peanut would grow especially well under the conditions that prevailed. To make sure farmers had a market for these crops, Carver developed hundreds of uses for them. Peanuts, for example, are used in kitty litter, soap, vinegar, shoe polish, ink, cheese, and face powder.
Have your students make a collage illustrating the variety of products made from peanuts. Then ask the kids if they know of any unusual sandwich combinations that use peanut butter. (Grandma knows peanut butter takes gum out of carpets, hair, and stuff. It does not leave a grease like you would think either.) Designate a day for a ...peanut butter picnic, and have the kids bring ...finger sandwiches of their unusual combinations. (Sweet pickles and peanut butter is really good together too. Also peanut butter on bananas and in celery sticks then with raisins on top and you have ants on a log.) Which were the most popular?"
 
Jan. 13, 1943 "Victory Sausages" (meatless hot dogs) were
introduced to make rationing easier during World War II.
 
Jan. 14, 1943 Franklin D. Roosevelt became the First
President to Fly in an Airplane While in Office.
 
Jan. 15, 1943 The Pentagon, the headquarters of the Department
of Defense and of the United States Army, Navy, and Air Force,
was completed.
 
Jan. 18, 1943 Bakers in the United States were ordered to
Stop Selling Sliced Bread for the duration of World War II.
 
Jan. 29, 1943 Ruth Streeter became the First Woman to Attain
the Rank of Major in the U.S. Marine Corps.
 
Jan. 18, 1944 E.B. Kan became the First Chinese
Person Granted U.S. Citizenship.
 
Jan. 20, 1945 President Franklin Roosevelt was
inaugurated for An Unprecedented Fourth Term.
 
Jan. 25, 1945 Grand Rapids, Mich., became the First City to
Fluoridate its Municipal Water Supply.
 
Jan. 10, 1946 Delegates from 51 nations met for the First
session of the United Nations General Assembly.
 
Jan. 10, 1946 Radar Signals were Bounced Off the Moon for the first time.
 
Jan. 31, 1947 Canada recorded its Lowest Temperature, -62° F.
 
Jan. 27, 1948 The First Tape Recorder was sold.
 
Jan. 28, 1948 The First Television Emmy Awards were given.
 
"TV favorites: Ask your (children) to list their favorite television shows, and write them (down). Then have the kids bestow their own Emmy awards by voting for their favorite shows in various categories. Broaden the activity by surveying (other children) and reporting the results ... ."
 
Jan. 30, 1948 Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in New Delhi, India.
 
Jan. 31, 1949 The First Daytime TV Soap Opera,
"These Are My Children," premiered.
 
Jan. 26, 1950 Jesse Owens was voted the top track and
field athlete of the first half of the 20th century.
 
Jan. 14, 1952 NBC's "Today" show premiered.
 
Jan. 20, 1952 Patricia McCormack made her debut as
America's First Female Bullfighter.
 
Jan. 21, 1954 The Nautilus, the world's First Atomic Submarine, was launched.
 
"Around the world under the sea: Conventional submarines are powered by diesel-combustion engines that burn oil. Nuclear subs--such as the Nautilus--are run by a fission process requiring uranium. The uranium engine uses less fuel to produce more energy. In fact, a lump of uranium the size of a golf ball can take a nuclear sub around the world seven times! Have your kids us their calculators to figure out that distance. Then challenge them to find out how the Nautilus got its name."
 
Jan. 7, 1955 Marian Anderson became the first black singer to
perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
 
Jan. 19, 1955 President Dwight Eisenhower held the
First Televised Presidential Press Conference.
 
Jan. 9, 1956 The advice column "Dear Abby" premiered.
 
Jan. 2, 1959 Luna 1, the First Soviet Moon Probe, was launched.
 
Jan. 3, 1959 Alaska became the 49th state.
 
"Welcome to the 49th state: Alaska, the largest state, covers 586,000 square miles. After your (children) locate Alaska on a map or globe, have them check an encyclopedia for the total area of their state. Then they can use their calculators to compare their state's size with Alaska's. About how many times would their state fit inside Alaska? How many times would Rhode Island fit?
The United States paid Russia $7,2 million for all 577.4 million acres of Alaska. Ask the kids to figure out the per-acre cost. Do they think Alaska was a wise purchase? Why or why not? Finally, invite your kids to design a license plate for Alaska, incorporating aspects of the state's economy, culture, climate, or natural resources."
 
Jan. 9, 1960 Construction began on the Aswan High Dam on
the Nile River is Egypt.
 
Jan. 23, 1960 The U.S. bathyscaphe Trieste I made a
Record-Breaking Descent to 35, 820 feet.
 
Jan. 31, 1961 A Chimpanzee Named Ham was recovered safely
after traveling to a height of 155 miles in a space capsule.
 
"For and against: A male chimpanzee named Ham was rocketed into space during a test of the Project Mercury capsule that would later carry U.S. astronauts into orbit. The Soviet Union used dogs in its testing of space capsules. Ask your (children) to describe the rationale for using these animals. How do the kids feel about animal experimentation in general? Make a class list of pros and cons on this issue. Invite the kids to spell out and defend their individual positions in their journals."
 
Jan. 16, 1962 Two Mastodon Teeth were discovered by
children in Hackensack, N.J.
 
"Incredible incisors: Your (children) might be surprised to discover that the earliest and most primitive mastodons, which lived some 40 million years ago, were only the size of pigs. But even they had the elongated trunk and incisor teeth (tusks)--Two above and two below--that are the main characteristics of all mastodons. They also had molars for grinding food. The best-known mastodons stood about 7 to 9 feet at the shoulders and became extinct around 8,000 years ago, possibly because of over hunting by humans. Ask your (children) to name animal species that are endangered today because of human practices. Have (them) research one of these species and report on what is being done to save it from extinction."
 
Jan. 11, 1964 A report from the U.S. surgeon general declared
Cigarettes Hazardous to Health.
 
Jan. 23, 1964 The Twenty-Fourth Amendment was ratified,
eliminating the poll tax in U.S. elections.
 
Jan. 8, 1965 Senator Everett Dirksen of Illinois introduced a bill to
make the Marigold the national flower of the United States.
 
" Winter blues-buster: Senator Dirksen's bill to make the marigold the national flower never became law. But the marigold--and other beautiful flowers--can bring a splash of color and a hint of spring to your (home) (as well as the number that are edible). Have your (children) look through seed catalogs and vote for a (family) flower. Hang photos of the winner and other top finishers on the (wall or a poster). Other seeds, then germinate and grow them in your (yard)."
 
Jan. 20, 1965 Lyndon Johnson Broke Tradition by asking his wife,
instead of a government official, to hold the family Bible during
his presidential inauguration.
 
Jan. 13, 1966 Robert Weaver became the First Black
Appointed to a Cabinet Post, secretary of the Department
of Housing and Urban Development.
 
Jan. 15, 1967 The Green Bay Packers beat the Kansas
City Chiefs, 35-10, in the First Super Bowl.
 
Jan. 16, 1967 Alan Boyd became the First
U.S. Secretary of Transportation.
 
Jan. 27, 1967 Three American astronauts, Virgil Grissom,
Edward White, and Roger Chaffee, were killed in an Apollo
Launching-Pad Fire.
 
Jan. 9, 1968 Surveyor 7 made a soft landing on the moon.
 
Jan. 14, 1969 Soviet cosmonauts made the First Linkup of
Two Orbiting Spaceships, Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5.
 
Jan. 12, 1970 The Boeing 747 made its first transatlantic flight.
 
Jan. 5, 1972 President Nixon ordered NASA to begin
work on a Manned Space Shuttle.
 
Jan. 30, 1972 Wilt Chamberlain grabbed his 21,734th rebound
to become Basketball's All-time Rebounding Leader.
 
Jan. 5, 1973 U.S. airliners began using Magnetometers,
metal-detecting devices, to scan passengers.
 
Jan. 27, 1973 A cease-fire accord was signed in Paris by the
United States and North Vietnam, ending direct U.S. involvement
in the Vietnam War.
 
Jan. 28, 1973 Arkansas made the Honeybee its state insect.
 
Jan. 2, 1974 President Nixon signed a bill requiring states to Limit
Highway Speeds to 55 MPH.
 
Jan. 31, 1974 A New Jersey court ruling directed
that Little League Teams Accept Girls.
 
Jan. 21, 1977 President Carter pardoned all U.S. Draft Evaders.
 
Jan. 16, 1978 NASA accepted its First Women Candidates for Astronauts
 
"On a whim: While a student at Stanford University, Sally Ride read in the campus newspaper that NASA was accepting applications for astronaut candidates. On a whim, she applied. Ride and five other women were among the 35 applicants chosen from the 8,037 people who applied. Have your (children) use their calculators to figure out what percentage of the applicants were selected as candidates, and what percentage of the candidates were women. Sally Ride went on to become the United States' first woman in space, aboard the shuttle Challenger on June 18, 1983. Ask whether anyone in your (family) ever did something on a whim and achieved positive results. Invite the (family) to share their stories."
 
Jan. 21, 1979 The Pittsburgh Steelers became the First
Football Team to Win Three Super Bowls.
 
Jan. 20, 1980 The Pittsburgh Steelers posted their Fourth
Super Bowl Victory in as many attempts.
 
Jan. 20, 1980 President Jimmy Carter announced that the
United States would Boycott the Summer Olympics in
 Moscow because of the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan.
 
Jan. 26, 1980 Frank Sinatra sang before 175,000 people--the
Largest Crowd Ever Assembled for One Performer--at the
Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
 
Jan. 7, 1983 Astronomers discovered a Black Hole Just Beyond the Milky Way.
 
Jan. 25, 1983 The World's Most Powerful Infrared Telescope,
called Iras, was launched into orbit to search for distant stars,
comets, and asteroids.
 
Jan. 10, 1985 Shel Silverstein's A Light in the Attic broke the record
(111 weeks) for the longest period on the New York Times best-seller list.
 
Jan. 24, 1985 The space shuttle Discovery was launched in
the First Secret Military Flight of the Shuttle Program.
 
Jan. 24, 1986 Photos sent from Voyager 2 showed
10 Previously Unknown Moons of Uranus.
 
"Uniquely Uranus: Tell your (children) that it takes Uranus 84 years to complete one orbit around the Sun. Have the kids use almanacs to find out what was happening on Earth 84 years ago. What do they think might be happening 84 years from today?"
 
Jan. 28, 1986 The Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 74 seconds
after lift-off, killing all seven astronauts aboard.
 
Jan. 20, 1987 Over-The-Telephone Advice helped 13-year-old
Clayton Ary save his grandmother's life.
 
"Emergency!: Eighth-grader Clayton Ary got scared when his 62-year-old grandmother fell and started turning blue. He dialed 911 for help but received only a recorded message saying 911 was not a service in that community. Next, he called the operator, who explained how to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Clayton followed her directions, and his grandmother started breathing on her own. Tell your (children) that they should always give their address, phone number, and type of emergency if they call 911. Have them make reminders--on pee-and-stock labels--that they can put on their home phone."
 
Jan. 22, 1987 A Labrador Retriever Named Coco saved his
2 1/2-year-old master from freezing to death by curling up on top of him.
 
Jan. 21, 1988 Felix, a Cat Trapped for 29 Days in the cargo hold
of an airplane, was reunited with her owners.
 
"High-flying feline: A cat named Felix escaped from her box in the cargo hold of a Boeing 747 while flying from Frankfurt, West Germany, to Los Angeles. She logged 179,000 miles over three continents and made 64 stops before airline personnel discovered her. Ask your (children) to figure out the average number of miles Felix traveled between stops. Have them write a story about one of her adventures."
 
Jan 23, 1988 Bob Benoit became the First Person to
Bowl a Perfect Game in a Televised Title Match.
 
Jan. 18, 1989 The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted Dion,
Otis Redding, the Rolling Stones, the Temptations, and Stevie Wonder.
 
Jan. 7, 1990 Italy's Leaning Tower of Pisa was closed for repairs.
 
"Tower challenge: Give (the children) about 20 4-inch-square pieces of paper. Instruct them to build the tallest paper tower possible. They can fold the sheets or cut them in any way, but they can't use any other materials."
 
Jan. 12, 1990 The shuttle Columbia returned to earth with
Tomato Seeds That Had Been in Space for 6 Years.
 
Jan. 13, 1990 Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev said he was prepared
to accept A Multi party System in the USSR.
 
Jan. 28, 1990 The San Francisco 49ers won their Second Consecutive Super Bowl.
 
Jan. 31, 1990 The world's Largest McDonald's Restaurant
opened for business in Moscow.
 
"Big Mac attack: The world's largest McDonald's restaurant, located in Moscow, has 27 cash registers, employs 630 people, and seats 900 customers. When McDonald's advertised for jobs in its Moscow restaurant, 26,000 people applied. Have your (children) use their calculators to figure out what percentage of the applicants got positions. Then tell the kids that an average of 12,500 people eat at the restaurant every day. Have your (children) find out how that number compares with the number of ..(other calculations as the number of people eating in a cafeteria you may know of.)"
 
Jan. 16, 1991 The Gulf War, in which a U.S.-led coalition of nations
fought to oust Iraqi forces from Kuwait, began with air strikes against Baghdad.
 
Jan. 20, 1993 Bill Clinton of Arkansas was inaugurated as
the 42nd president of the United States.
 
 

Day 178

Posted on May 30, 2014 at 1:04 AM Comments comments (27)
Grandma is entering information for November's Calendar history of the 1800's and 1900's
 
November 1, 1800 President John Adams and his wife, Abigail, became the
First Residents of the White House, which was still unfinished.
 
"White House living: Ask how many of your (children) have visited the White House. Invite them to share photographs and memories of their trip. Make a list of some of the White House's rooms, and assign groups to each research one. Ask each (child) to use a shoe-box display to depict the room it studied."
 
Nov. 17, 1800 Congress convened for the first time in Washington, D.C.
 
Nov. 10, 1801 Tennessee outlawed Dueling.
 
Nov. 3, 1804 The Sauk and Fox Indians signed a treaty ceding 50 million
 acres of present-day Illinois to the United States.
 
"Today's treaty: Give your (children) a chance to develop their own treaty, as the Sauk and Fox Indians and the United States did in 1804. First, have (the children) identify a problem they're having with each other. Then, for the treaty, have them list what each ... would do separately and together to make the agreement work. Use black permanent marker to print the final text of the treaty on butcher paper or paper sacks, rubbed with linseed oil to resemble parchment. Year the edges of the paper to make it look even more authentic. Discuss the treaty with the (children) and ask if they're satisfied with it. Post the treaty for reference."
 
Nov. 7, 1805 The Lewis and Clark Expedition sighted the Pacific Ocean at the
 mouth of the Columbia River.
 
"Meticulous observers(We have already carried out this activity but the information might be important to have.): President Thomas Jefferson, who authorized the Lewis and Clark expedition, asked the explorers to keep careful notes of their journey. Lewis and Clark filled notebooks with detailed descriptions and drawings of the 24 Native American tribes, the 122 animal species, and the nearly 200 plant species they encountered. (Here is the activity)--Take your (children) for a walk around the (home). Have them sketch plants or animals they find, then consult field guides for more information."
 
Nov. 15, 1806 Zebulon Pike sighted Pikes Peak in Colorado.
 
"Mountain Man: Pikes Peak was named for Zebulon Pike, an army officer and explorer who sighted it in 1806. He wrote in his journal an impressive description of the mighty mountain. Ask your students to write a description of a natural wonder in their area. Remind them that natural wonders can be common, like a bird hunting for food, the shadow cast by a bare tree, a new snowfall, or the changing shapes of the clouds."
 
Nov. 25, 1817 The First Sword-Swallowing Exhibition in the
United States was given by Senaa Samma of India.
 
Nov. 26, 1818 Encke's Comet, which appears more frequently
than any other known comet, was discovered.
 
Nov. 18, 1820 Antarctica was Discovered by a U.S. navy captain,
Nathaniel B. Palmer.
 
Nov. 20, 1820 The whaling ship Essex was Sunk by a Sperm Whale.
 
Nov. 14, 1836 Fiberglass was patented by a Frenchman named Dubus-Bonnel.
 
Nov. 3, 1837 Housewives in Illinois staged a protest against the High Cost
 of Food (including butter, 8¢/ lb.,eggs, 6¢/ doz., and beef, 3¢/lb.).
 
"Prices then and now: Have your students guess today's prices for a pound of butter, a dozen eggs, and a pound of beef. Get actual prices from a nearby supermarket. Whose guesses were closest? In addition to comparing today's prices for these items with the 1837 prices, the kids could suggest how food packaging, distribution, and advertising have changed since then."
 
Nov. 4, 1841 The First Immigrant Wagon Train arrived in California.
 
Nov. 4, 1842 Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd.
 
Nov. 22, 1842 The First Volcanic Eruption Recorded in the
United States occurred at Mt. Lassen, Calif.
 
Nov. 28, 1843 France and England recognized the Independence of Hawaii.
 
Nov. 19, 1850 The First Insurance Policy on a Woman's Life was issued.
 
Nov. 13, 1851 Moby-Dick was published.
 
Nov. 17, 1851 The First Postage Stamps depicting the American eagle
 were issued.
 
"Stamp of approval: Show your (children) a picture of the bald eagle. Why do they think this bird appealed to our Founding Fathers as a symbol for the country? Where besides postage stamps have they seen this symbol used? Have each (child) design a class stamp, then hold a vote for the favorite. Have a local stationery store make the winning design into a traditional in-pad stamp, which you and the kids can use to adorn papers, tests, and (home) correspondence."
 
Nov. 10, 1855 The Song of Hiawatha, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,
was published.
 
Nov. 17, 1855 Dr. David Livingstone came across Victoria Falls along
the Zambezi River.
 
Nov. 12, 1859 Jules Leotard, a French acrobat, introduced
 The Flying Trapeze at a circus in Paris.
 
Nov. 24,1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species,
which outlined his Theory of Evolution through natural selection.
(This was just a theory and Grandma provided information in the
beginning of classes that they have found this to be untrue by a
special skull they found.)
 
Nov 6, 1860 Abraham Lincoln defeated three other candidates for the presidency.
 
Nov. 19, 1863 Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address.
 
"Quality, not Quantity: President Lincoln and Edward Everett, a former governor of Massachusetts, secretary of state, and U.S. senator, spoke at a ceremony dedicating a national cemetery at Gettysburg, Pa.--where 3,100 Union soldiers and 3.900 Confederate soldiers died in battle. Newspaper editors throughout the country failed to recognize the importance of Lincoln's speech, relegating the 270-word address to inside pages while covering Everett's 2-hour speech on front pages. Read the Gettysburg Address--now regarded as one of the greatest speeches of all time--to your (children). Do they think it's a powerful speech/ Why? Challenge them to write a speech of 100 words or less on a topic that evokes strong feelings in them."
 
Nov 26, 1863 By proclamation of President Abraham Lincoln,
Thanksgiving Day was celebrated on the last Thursday in November.
 
Nov. 15, 1864 Union soldiers under the command of General William
Sherman Burned the City of Atlanta.
 
Nov. 16, 1864 General William Sherman started his Civil War
"march to the Sea" from Atlanta.
 
Nov. 21, 1864 President Lincoln wrote a letter of condolence
to Mrs. Lydia Bixby, whose five sons had been killed in the Civil War.
 
Nov. 26, 1864 Lewis Carroll sent an early Christmas present to
Alice Liddell, a 12-year-old friend: a handwritten manuscript that
he later expanded into Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
 
Nov. 13, 1865 Gold Certificates, used in place of money or gold to
 pay debts, were first issued.
 
Nov. 18, 1865 Mark Twain published his first fiction,
 "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County."
 
Nov. 11, 1868 The New York athletic Club held the First Indoor Track Meet.
 
"Keep on trackin': Celebrate the anniversary of the first indoor track meet by organizing a similar event ... . ...(plan activities). Include such favorite events as the broad jump and relays. But also try some nontraditional events, such as a walking race in which (children) must keep one foot on the ground at all times and may not bend their knees, a backward race, or a hopping race. Vary the distances of the races so "tortoises" as well as "hares" have a chance to show their stuff."
 
Nov. 6, 1869 Rutgers defeated Princeton, l-4, in the First Intercollegiate Football
Game.
 
"Let the games begin!: In honor of James Naismith, who invented basketball so his students could play a sport indoors, have (the children) design a game that meets their needs. Ask (them) to decide: 1) where the game should be played (indoors or outdoors), 2) the number of players ... (and if teams-how many on each, 30 the necessary equipment, and 40 the emphasis of the game (accuracy, speed, strength, endurance, or some combination of these). Have the (children) try out their games, then demonstrate them to ...others if you wish."
 
Nov. 17, 1869 The Suez Canal opened.
 
Nov. 24, 1869 Women from 21 states met in Cleveland to organize
the American Woman Suffrage Association.
 
Nov. 1, 1870 The U.S. Weather Bureau made its first weather observation.
 
Nov. 18, 1870 Mail was carried by Pigeon from England to France.
 
Nov. 6, 1871 Anna Sewell began writing Black Beauty.
 
"Animal "authors":In commemoration of the day Anna Sewell began writing Black Beauty, ask your (children) to select an animal--real or fictional--and write a diary entry in that animal's voice. They should focus on a particular incident in the animal's life (for example, giving birth, winning a race, moving). Encourage the kids to consult science books for information that will lend authenticity to their work."
 
Nov.10, 1871 Reporter Henry M. Stanley found Dr. David Livingstone
in central Africa.
 
"Quite a bike, I presume: Henry Morton Stanley traveled for 236 days and covered 975 miles to find Dr. David Livingstone. Have your (children) use an atlas to identify an area they're unfamiliar with that's about 975 miles from their hometown."
 
Nov. 5, 1872 Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined $100 for trying
 to vote in a presidential election."
 
Nov. 19, 1872 A patent for the Adding Machine was issued to
E.D. Barbour of Boston.
 
Nov. 20, 1873 The cities Buda and Pest were United to form
Hungary's capital.
 
"Twin cities: Locate Budapest on a world map. Then have your (children) search atlases, globes, and maps for other twin cities that could be combined and given new names. List these places ... . The kids could even combine two states or countries. How about a state called Arkansasaw or a country called Sportugal?"
 
Nov. 7, 1874 The elephant was first used as a Symbol of the
Republican Party, in Harper's Weekly.
 
Nov. 24, 1874 Barbed Wire was patented by Joseph Glidden of Illinois.
 
Nov. 30, 1875 A patent for a Biscuit Cutter was issued to
A,O, Ashbourne of Oakland, Calif.
 
Nov. 23, 1876 Columbia, Harvard, and Princeton formed the
First Intercollegiate Football Association.
 
Nov. 21, 1877 Thomas Edison announced his Invention of the Phonograph.
 
Nov. 4, 1879 James Ritty received a patent for the Cash Register.
 
"A cash register's story: James Ritty designed the first cash register so he could have a record of transactions in his restaurant. His first model looked like a clock, with one hand showing the dollars and the other hand showing the cents. There were rows of keys along the base. Today's electronic cash registers indicate the category and price of each item, the total sale, the amount tendered, and the amount of change. Have the (children) collect grocery tapes and make bar graphs of the different types of purchases--produce, meat, cleaning supplies, and so on. Then have the kids transfer this information to pie graphs showing the percentage of purchases from each category."
 
Nov. 18, 1883 Standard Time Zones were adopted in the United States.
 
"Clock confusion: Until late in the 19th century, there was no national standard time. People would set their watches by the position of the sun, and even if they were off by a little bit, they didn't care. But as the country grew and communication--and railways--expanded, it became necessary to establish standard times. That's when American railroad companies adopted a system of four time zones: eastern, central mountain, and Pacific. Display a U.S. map that's divided into time zones. Set four watches according to time zone and clip them to the appropriate section of the map. Throughout the day, refer to the watches and talk about what people might be doing at that moment in various parts of the country."
 
Nov. 26, 1883 Sojourner Truth, a former slave who became
a leading abolitionist, died.
 
Nov. 10, 1885 The World's First Motorcycle--a 1/2-horsepower engine mounted
 on a wooden bicycle frame--was invented by a German named Gottlieb Daimler.
 
Nov. 27, 1885 A Meteorite landed near Mazapil, Mexico.
 
Nov. 30, 1887 The First Softball Game was played in Chicago.
 
Nov. 2, 1889 North Dakota and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th
 states respectively.
 
"Welcome, Dakotas!:Complete a class "K-W-L" chart about North and South Dakota. (Kids start out by listing what they know about the states and what more they want to know.) During free reading, ask (your children) to research the states, with the class "W" list in mind. Later, they can report on what they learned."
 
Nov. 8, 1889 Montana became the 41st state.
 
"Welcome, Montana!: Ask your (children) to speculate on the origin of Montana's name (it comes from the Latin term for "mountainous"). Do they think the state's nickname, "Big Sky Country," is appropriate? Montana ranks fourth among the states in land area. Which states do your (children) think are larger than Montana? How does Montana's total area of 147,046 square miles compare with the area of your state?"
 
Nov. 11, 1889 Washington became the 42nd state.
 
Nov. 14, 1889 Journalist Nellie Bly set out on An Around-The-World Trip she
 hoped to complete in less than 80 days.
 
Nov. 23, 1889 The First Jukebox was installed,in Sam Francisco.
 
Nov. 27, 1890 A Protest Against Bicycles took place outside Boston.
The demonstrators claimed bicycles made the roads unsafe
for horses and buggies.
 
"Wheelers: Those who complained about bicycles on Boston streets also disliked the black tights and handlebar mustaches sported by so many cyclists. Ask your (children) to describe how cyclists are dressing today. What are some safety rules all cyclists should practice? Challenge the kids to compare the average costs of a bicycle 100 years ago and today."
 
Nov. 29, 1890 Navy beat Army, 25-0, in the First Army-Navy Football Game.
 
Nov. 18, 1894 The First Sunday Newspaper Comic Section
 appeared in the New York World.
 
Nov. 5, 1895 George Seldon received a patent for a Gas-powered Automobile.
 
"Wheels of the future: Celebrate the automobile with your (children). Invite them
 to draw the car of the future--or their dream car--labeling any unique
 features and unusual capabilities.
As a journal assignment, ask your students to ponder one of these questions: What would the automobile industry be like without mass production? What would the world be like without cars? What are some of the pros and cons of automobile travel? What could you do to cut back on car use in your family?"
 
Nov. 8, 1895 X-Rays were discovered by the German physicist
Wilhelm Roentgen.
 
Nov. 28, 1895 The First U.S. Auto Race began in Chicago. J. Frank Duryea
won with an average speed of 7 1/2 mph.
 
"Some race!: The first U.S. auto race covered a 54-mile course from Chicago to Evanston, Ill.,
and back. More than 80 cars entered, but only 6 completed the race. Have your (children) use their calculators to compute the percentage that finished. Tell the (children) that it took the winning driver 7 hours and 53 minutes to cover the course, for an average speed of 7 1/2 mph. Your (children) might be surprised to learn that a chicken can run faster. Ask them to research how some other animals' speeds compare."
 
Nov. 15, 1896 Niagara Falls was first used to generate power,
for the city of Buffalo, N.Y.
 
Nov. 24, 1896 Vermont enacted the First Absentee Voting Law.
 
Nov. 23, 1897 J.L. Love received a patent for the Pencil Sharpener.
 
Nov.3, 1900 The First Auto Show in the United States was held in New York City.
 
Nov. 16, 1901 An automobile was first driven Faster than a Mile a Minute.
 
Nov. 10, 1903 The Windshield Wiper was patented by
 Mary Anderson of Massachusetts.
 
"Everyday things: The windshield wiper, invented on this day in 1903, is an uncomplicated device that helps drivers avoid accidents. Ask the (children) to suggest some other simple yet helpful items that make a big difference in their daily lives. What about the bottle opener, the pocket knife, the colander, the staple remover, and thumbtacks? Invite students to write a tribute to one of these devices, such as "Ode to a Hand-Held Orange Juice Squeezer."
 
Nov. 27, 1903 Puss, the Oldest Cat on Record, was born. She
lived for 36 years and 1 day.
 
"It's a wonderful life; Ask your (children) to use almanacs and record books to find average life spans and longevity records for various animals. Then have them make bar graphs to show the results. What kinds of animals seem to live longer? Invite the kids to write biographies of their pets. Encourage them to include photos."
 
Nov. 9, 1906 Theodore Roosevelt became the First U.S. President to
 Leave the Country while in office, sailing for the Panama Canal Zone.
 
Nov. 22, 1906 The SOS Distress Signal was adopted
by an international convention in Berlin.
 
"Student ciphers: Most people think SOS stands for Save Our Ship, Save Our Souls, or Stop Other Signals. All are wrong, SOS  represents the Morse code signal for three short dots, three long dashes, and three short dots. It was adopted by international agreement as a universal call for help because it was easy to understand. Invite student teams to develop their own codes and exchange messages with others. Keep a (family) code book with decoded messages."
 
Nov. 15, 1907 The "Mutt and Jeff" comic strip first appeared.
 
Nov. 16, 1907 Oklahoma became the 46th state.
 
Nov. 11, 1909 Work began on the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor.
 
Nov. 8, 1910 A patent for a "Bug Zapper" was issued to W.W. Frost
 of Spokane, Wash.,
 
Nov. 27, 1910 Pennsylvania Station opened in New York City.
At the time, it was the Largest RailwayTerminal in the United States.
 
Nov.5, 1911 The First Transcontinental Airplane Flight arrived in
 Pasadena, Calif., from New York.
 
"Flying time: The first transcontinental airplane flight covered the 2,320-mile distance from New York to Pasadena in 82 hours and 4 minutes. Have the class use calculators to figure out the plane's air speed. Then challenge the kids to determine how long it would take a modern jet (560 mph), a supersonic plane (800mph), and an orbiting satellite (25,000 mph) to make that trip."
 
Nov. 23, 1911 The U.S. Post office's First Airmail Pilot,
Earl Ovington, was sworn in.
 
"Getting there: Earl Ovington flew the mail between two communities on Long Island: Garden City and Mineola. The distance of his route was 6 miles. On a local road map, mark places that are 6 miles from your (Home). Have the kids figure out how long it would take a bicyclist to carry mail 6 miles. How about a walker?"
Nov. 12, 1912 The First Movie Stuntman jumped from a dynamited balloon
 into the Hudson River.
 
Nov. 22, 1917 The National Hockey league was established.
 
"Hockey havens: The National Hockey League was established in 1917. Ask your (children) to check an almanac to find all the cities that have a professional hockey team. Locate these cities on a map. Which team names seem particularly appropriate? For example, whaling was an important industry in Connecticut during the 19th century, and Hartford's team name is the Whalers."
 
Nov. 11, 1918 An Armistice was signed ending World War I.
 
Nov. 2, 1920 The First Commercial Radio News Broadcast originated from
 station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pa. It reported the presidential election returns.
 
Nov. 15, 1920 The League of Nations held its first meeting in Geneva.
 
Nov. 11, 1921 America's Unknown Soldier of World War I was interred at Arlington
National Cemetery.
 
Nov. 4, 1922 English archaeologist Howard Carter discovered steps leading to
 The Entrance Gallery of King Tutankhamen's Tomb.
 
Nov. 21, 1922 The First Cruise Ship to Circumnavigate the
World, the Laconic, departed from New York City.
 
Nov. 20, 1923 Garrett Morgan, an African-American inventor,
patented The Traffic Light.
 
Nov. 4, 1924 Nellie Taylor Ross, the nation's First Woman Governor,
 was elected in Wyoming.
 
Nov. 5, 1924 The First Crossword Puzzle Book was published.
 
Nov. 26, 1925 Ford Announced the Price of its popular roadster: $260.
 
Nov. 12, 1927 The Holland Tunnel, which runs under New York's
 Hudson River, was opened.
 
Nov. 22, 1927 The First Snowmobile Patent was issued to Carl J.E. Elason.
 
Nov. 6, 1928 Jacob Schick received a patent for the Electric Shaver.
 
"A close shave: Have your (children) compare the electric shaver with the product that preceded it, the razor. What special needs does the electric shaver meet that the razor does not? In their journals, have the kids list ways products they use could be improved and sketch what the new versions might look like."
 
Nov. 6, 1928 Charles Curtis, whose mother was a Native American of the
 Kaw tribe, became the 31st vice president of the United States
 
Nov. 7, 1929 The Museum of Modern Art opened in New York.
 
Nov. 28, 1929 Ernie Nevers established an NFL Single-Game Scoring
Record by running for six touchdowns and kicking four extra points.
 
Nov. 29, 1929 Richard Byrd completed the First Plane Flight
over the South Pole.
 
Nov. 22, 1931 Ferde Grofe's Grand Canyon Suite premiered in Chicago.
 
Nov. 11, 1933 The Great Black Blizzard, a storm that kicked up a mile-high
 wall of dust, ravaged thousands of acres of the Great Plains.
 
Nov. 13, 1933 The First Recorded Sit-Down Strike in the United States
 took place at the Hormel Packing Co. in Austin, Minn.
 
Nov.16, 1933 The United States established Diplomatic Relations with the USSR.
 
Nov. 2, 1936 The British Broadcasting Corporation began regular TV
 broadcasts in England.
 
Nov. 9, 1938 Nazis roamed the streets of Germany, destroying Jewish
 homes, businesses, and synagogues in what came to be known
as the "Crystal Night."
 
Nov. 10, 1938 American writer Pearl Buck was awarded the Nobel Prize
 in literature.
 
Nov. 13, 1939 The Rotolactor, a rotating milking machine capable of milking
 1,680 cows in 7 hours, was demonstrated by its inventor, Henry Jeffers.
 
Nov. 15, 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt laid the cornerstone for the
Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C.
 
"Making changes: The Jefferson Memorial is a tribute to our third president, who was also the writer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson believed that there should be less formality in the White House. As president, he began the practice of having guests sit at a round table so everyone would feel equally important. He also preferred his guests to shake his hand instead of bowing, which had been the practice. Ask your (children) to list practices they think are too formal and what changes they'd make."
 
Nov. 5, 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first U. S president elected
 to a third term.
 
Nov. 7, 1940 The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapsed in a windstorm. It was the
nation's third-largest suspension bridge.
 
Nov. 13, 1940 Walt Disney's Fantasia, the first film with stereophonic sound,
 premiered in New York.
 
Nov. 3, 1942 The Alaska Highway, running from Dawson Creek, British Columbia,
 to Fairbanks, Alaska, was completed.
 
Nov 7, 1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to an unprecedented
Fourth Consecutive Term.
 
Nov. 23, 1945 World War II Food Rationing ended in the
United States, except for sugar.
 
Nov. 13, 1946 The First Artificial Snow was produced at Mt. Greylock, Mass.
 
Nov. 21, 1946 Harry S. Truman became the First President to
Travel Underwater on a Submarine.
 
"Underwater president: Harry Truman rode on board U-2513, a captured German submarine, during U.S. naval exercises off Key West, Fla. Show your (children) a cutaway view of a submarine. (You should be able to find one in an encyclopedia.) Then ask them to draw a cutaway view of their lunch bag, backpack, or toy chest--with contents, of course."
 
Nov. 20, 1947 Queen Elizabeth II of England
 married Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten.
 
Nov.2, 1948 President Harry S. Truman Won Reelection despite polls predicting
 a landslide victory for his opponent, Thomas E. Dewey.
 
Nov. 10, 1951 Coast-to-Coast Direct-dial Phone Service began.
 
"Phone fun: Play a map game using area codes. Call out a code (check the front of the telephone book for a list) and the state or country that uses it. Have a volunteer point to the place on the wall map.
Have the kids make wallet-sized cards that contain important phone numbers--such as the police and fire departments, the poison control center, and parents' work numbers. Encourage the kids to keep this information handy."
 
Nov. 25, 1952 Agatha Christie's The Mouse-Trap ,
the longest-running play ever, opened in London.
 
Nov. 10, 1954 The Iwo Jima Memorial was dedicated in Arlington, VA.
 
Nov. 12, 1954 Ellis Island, which since 1892 had processed more than
 20 million immigrants to the United States, was closed.
 
Nov. 30, 1954 A Meteorite fell on Ann Hodges of Sylacauga, Ala.
 
"Surprise from space; While resting on her couch, Ann Hodges was jolted to her feet by a tremendous noise. She felt pain in her left hand and hip, saw a large hole in the ceiling, then noticed a rock--still worm to the touch--on the floor. It was a meteorite. Though a meteorite strikes a human only about once every 10,000 years, 200 to 2,000 of them fall to earth each day. Your (children) might not have seen any meteorites, but they might well have stepped on some micrometeorites: about 20 tons of these dust particles land on earth every day. Can your (children) explain the difference between a meteor and a comet?"
 
Nov. 13, 1956 The U.S. Supreme Court declared Racial Segregation
 on Public Buses Unconstitutional.
 
Nov. 3, 1957 A dog named Laika became Earth's First Space Traveler, on board
 the Soviet satellite Sputnik
 
Nov. 2, 1959 Jacques Plante became the First Goalie to wear a Mask
 during a professional Hockey game.
 
Nov. 17, 1959 Synthetic Diamonds were first commercially
 manufactured by De Beers in South Africa.
 
"Hot statistics: To produce synthetic diamonds, pure carbon is subjected to temperatures above 5,000° F and pressures exceeding 2,500,000 pounds per square inch. Challenge your (children) to compare this temperature with that of the human body (98.6° F) and this pressure with that of the atmosphere at sea level (14.7 pounds per square inch). also have the kids compare and graph other temperatures, such as molten lava (2,200° F), a car engine (700° F), and the surface of the sun (10,000° F)."
 
Nov. 20, 1959 The United Nations adopted the Declaration
of the Rights of the Child.
 
"Rights rally: The Declaration of the Rights of the Child states that all children are entitled to an opportunity to develop in a healthy, normal manner; a name and a nationality; adequate housing and nutrition; recreation and medical services; special care if handicapped; love and understanding; free education; protection in times of disaster; and protection from cruelty, neglect, and discrimination. Encourage your (children) to write a classroom Declaration of the Rights of the (Home Schooled). Publish the finished document in your (home) newsletter."
 
Nov. 27, 1960 Hockey star Gordie Howe recoded his 1,000th Career Point.
 
Nov. 29, 1961 A U.S. Mercury-Atlas Space Capsule, along with its
passenger, a chimpanzee, was recovered after splashing down.
 
"Animals in space: Many animals have blazed their own space trails. Have (the children) research the contributions of animal astronauts and critter cosmonauts. The kids should include the type of animal, the country that sent it into space, and the date of the space flight. Then ask your (children) to design plaques or citations for each animal." (Put them in a booklet.)
 
Nov. 1, 1962 The Soviet Union launched the spacecraft Mars 1 to study the Red Planet.
 
Nov. 5, 1963 The First Radio-tracked Grizzly Bear began its hibernation.
 
"Nap time!: Scientists studied the grizzly's "long winter nap" by placing a radio transmitter around the bear's neck. Ask your (children) to list other animals that hibernate throughout the winter. What animals are true hibernators? What animals are partial hibernators? What animals remain active throughout the winter? Ask your (children) to make bookmarks depicting animals' winter habits. Give the finished products to the school librarian for use in animal or winter books."
 
Nov. 14, 1963 Surtsey, a volcanic island near Iceland, was born.
 
"Up in smoke: The volcanic island Surtsey was named in honor of Surtur, the fire-possessing giant of Norse mythology. Have your (children) research other mythical characters--Thor, Atlas, Perseus, Neptune, Aphrodite, Cyclops, Mercury, Pygmalion, Medusa--and describe make-believe islands bearing the names and reflecting the traits of these characters."
 
Nov. 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was Assassinated in Dallas, Tex.
 
Nov. 25, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was
Buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
 
"Leadership qualities: When John F. Kennedy was a college student, he wrote, "Unless democracy can produce able leaders, its chances of survival are slight." Ask your (children) to list qualities of an able leader. Then have them write a short essay on the character traits they think the president of the United States should have."
 
Nov. 29, 1963 President Lyndon Johnson established the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy. (However, Grandma heard of a recent video of Robert Kennedy accusing Lyndon Johnson of having John Kennedy killed-something to look into.)
 
Nov. 3, 1964 Residents of Washington, D.C., voted for the first time in
 a presidential election.
 
Nov. 21, 1964 The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, the suspension bridge
with the longest main span in the world, opened.
 
Nov.9, 1965 A Power Blackout covering 80,000 square miles stranded
 almost a million East Coast residents in elevators and subways for up to 13 hours.
 
"Blackout!: Most people take electricity for granted--until the power goes out! History's most celebrated blackout put 30,000,000 East Coast residents in the dark for up to 13 hours. Almost 1,000,000 people were trapped in elevators and subways. Ask your (children) to list other aspects of modern life that people frequently take for granted. Have them write a short story that explores the consequences of one or more of these assumptions."
 
Nov. 7, 1966 NBC Became the First Network to broadcast all of its
 programs in color.
 
Nov. 17, 1966 During a huge meteor shower, 50,000 meteors
 were observed over Arizona in a 20-minute period.
 
Nov. 10, 1969 "Sesame Street" debuted.
 
"Muppet moments: To celebrate the 1969 debut of "Sesame Street,"  have your (children) make a list of its stars--both human and muppet. Invite the kids to make anniversary cards for their favorite characters. Send them in care of Children's Television Workshop, One Lincoln PLaza, New York, NY 10023. Continue the party y asking your kids to share their favorite "Sesame Street" book with classmates or with a class younger students."
 
Nov. 16, 1969 Moon Rocks first went on public display, in New York
City's Museum of Natural History.
 
"Moon rocks: In 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong collected 48 pounds of soil and rocks from the moon. Scientists eagerly studied these samples. They discovered a rock mineral not found on earth and named it Armalcolite after the Apollo 11 astronauts--Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. Have groups of students figure out what they'd name rocks they discovered."
 
Nov. 19, 1969 The Brazilian soccer star Pele Scored His
1,000th Career Goal, in Rio de Janeiro.
 
Nov. 20, 1969 The U.S. Department of Agriculture Banned The Use
of Pesticide DDT in residential areas.
 
Nov. 23, 1969 The First Fossil Bones Found in Antarctica were discovered.
 
"Life on the frozen continent: Archaeologists digging near the South Pole found the fossil remains of a Lystrosaurus, a 4-foot reptile that lived about 200 million years ago. Ask your (children) to make a list of the animals living in Antarctica today. Then have them use this list to sketch a food web that involves at least three of the animals."
 
Nov. 23, 1969 Apollo 12 astronauts held the First Space-to-earth
News Conference.
 
"Interplanetary news: In honor of the first space-to earth news conference,...(have the children investigate planets.) Once research is complete, ask (them to create a news telecast from (the ) planets." (Your family should have already done some research on the planets now just make a telecast of your research.) 
 
Nov. 24, 1969 Apollo 12 splashed down in the Pacific to conclude
its historic moon mission.
 
Nov. 8, 1970 Placekicker Tom Dempsey kicked an NFL-record 63-Yard
 Field Goal to propel the New Orleans Saints over the Detroit Lions.
 
Nov. 17, 1970 The Soviet Union's Lunokhod 1, a solar-powered
eight-wheel robot, became the First Vehicle to Travel Along the Moon's Surface.
 
Nov. 18, 1971 The Hunting of Animals From Airplanes was made a federal crime.
 
Nov. 1, 1973 The World's Tallest Barber Pole, a towering 50 feet e inches,
was put up in Alexander, N.Y.
 
Nov. 25, 1973 By executive order, the Speed Limit on U.S.
highways was reduced to 55 mph.
 
Nov. 27, 1973 By a vote of 92-3, The Senate Voted to Confirm Gerald
Ford as vice president, succeeding Spiro Agnew.
 
Nov. 9, 1976 Smokey the Bear died at the age of 26.
 
"Forest fire policy: Smokey the Bear was a badly burned cub that survived a fire in the Lincoln National Forest in New Mexico. With a cartoon Smokey as its mascot, the U.S. Forest Service supported a no-burn policy. This led to overgrown "old" forests that inhibited new growth. In the 1970s, a policy allowing natural fires to burn was instituted in order to help rejuvenate forests. This policy was questioned after tremendous fires burned much of Yellowstone National Park in 1988. Show your (children) pictures of Yellowstone immediately after the fires and a year later. Have small groups design posters depicting the ways in which fire is a natural part of the ecological process."
 
Nov. 9, 1976 The United Nations General Assembly approved 10
 Resolutions Condemning Apartheid in South Africa.
 
Nov. 20, 1976 The Longest Banana Split ever made--over a mile
long--was served in Queensland, Australia.
 
Nov. 7, 1977 By catching a Grape thrown 259 feet in his mouth, college
 student Arden Chapman established a new world record.
 
"Would-be records: A world record is set when a person does something longer, bigger, faster, more often, than anyone else. Ask your (children) to think of a world record they'd like to set. Then have them draw a picture of themselves setting that record. Add to the fun by asking the kids to give themselves a nickname that describes their special performance. For example, Arden Chapman's nickname could be "the Great Grapecatcher," "Grape Man," or "Gotcha Graper." The kids can make nickname nametags to wear when they share their pictures and tell their record-breaking stories."
 
Nov. 22, 1977 The Concorde Jet began service between
New York and Paris and London.
 
Nov. 4, 1979 Militant Iranian Students seized the U.S. embassy in Tehran and
 took its staff hostage, an ordeal that lasted 444 days
 
Nov. 28, 1979 Billy Smith of the New York Islanders became the
 First NHL Goalie to Score a Goal.
 
"Football records: Have the kids check the newspaper sports page for current team and individual football statistics. Who are the leading passers, receivers, and scorers? Invite the kids to write their own word problems based on the newspaper stats. What player scored the most points in the previous week's games? How does his total compare with Ernie Nevers's?"
 
Nov. 12, 1980 Voyager 1, an unmanned U.S. spacecraft, passed Saturn and
 transmitted new information about the planet's rings.
 
Nov.11, 1981 Fernando Valenzuela of the Los Angeles Dodgers became the
 First Rookie to Win Baseball's Cy Young Award.
 
Nov. 12, 1981 The second launching of the Space Shuttle Columbia marked
the first time a space vehicle was reused.
 
Nov. 13, 1982 The Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated
 in Washington, D.C.
 
"The wall: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is one of the most visited sites in Washington, D.C.  Its black, reflective surface is engraved with the names of over 58,000 Americans killed or missing in action in Vietnam. The memorial was designed by Maya Yang Lin, an architecture student at Yale University. A panel of artists, architects, designers, and members of the Fine Arts Commission selected her design from among 1,421 entries, including one from her professor The ideas, in model form, filled a large warehouse.
Many visitors leave mementos, including stuffed animals, photos, flags, flowers, letters, and poems, at the base of the panel where the name of a relative or friend appears. Ask your (children) what mementos they would leave. Then share Eve Bunting's powerful book The Wall."
 
Nov. 9, 1984 The Statue Three Servicemen was unveiled at the Vietnam
Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.
 
Nov. 6, 1987 American sailor Tania Aebi completed a 2 1/2 year,
27,000-mile voyage around the world, thus becoming the
 First Woman to Circumnavigate the Glove Solo.
 
Nov. 19, 1987 Architect Robert Leathers met with Chicago elementary
 students  To Design a Play Ground.
 
"Junior architects: Primary students from the Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago gave architect Robert Leathers pictures of their ideal playground. Using their ideas, he designed a fantasy playground of castles, spaceships, mazes, and tunnels. Ask your (children) to design, draw, and label a diagram of their dream playground."
 
Nov. 20, 1987 Twiglet Bank, the first bank founded by children,
run by children, and for children only opened.
 
Nov. 9, 1989 East Germany opened the Berlin Wall and its border with
 West Germany as thousands celebrated.
 
Nov.22, 1990 Clifford the Big Red Dog made his
debut in Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.
 
"Canine favorite: Norman Bridwell, the creator of Clifford the Big Red Dog, thinks it's reassuring for kids to see that everyone--even a lovable dog like Clifford--makes mistakes. Have your (children) bring their favorite Clifford books (out). Invite them to read sections that show the oversized pooch trying to do the right thing but falling just a bit short of his goal."
 
Nov. 3, 1992 Bill Clinton was elected the 42nd president of the United States.
Week
 
Sorry that Grandma cannot go any further tonight. These are really longer than I expected and I have been typing all day. My fingers will no longer work right. I will finish the weekend.

Day 177

Posted on May 28, 2014 at 11:32 PM Comments comments (16)
Good Morning Folks! On this blog Grandma will put October activities for the 1800's and 1900' on this blog.
 
"Confounded collectors: Tell your (children) these unusual words for collectors of different things: deltiologist (postcards), numismatist (coins), comiconomen-caricaturist (funny names of people, bibliophile (books). Have (the children) investigate the root words for these terms. Next, ask them what they collect. Is there a special term for people with those collections? If no, what words can your (children) make up? For example, how about "fluffacritterologist" for the person who collects stuffed animals? (what about rock collectors)
 
Variations on a theme park: Disney World boasts many special areas, called "lands," where all the rides, attractions, and characters follow a theme. These areas include Fantasy land, Frontier land, and Tomorrow land. What new "lands" would your students want to include? How about "Retro land," with a back -in-time theme? or "Computor land," where computers do everything? Invite the kids to draw and write about their suggested new "land."
 
Honors to Mrs. Mallard: Robert McCloskey spent months studying ducks--even sharing his apartment and bathtub with them. The result was his award-winning picture book Make Way for Ducklings. A bronze sculpture commemorating Mrs. Mallard and her eight ducklings can be seen at the Boston Public Garden. What suggestions do your students have for commemorating their favorite animal stories?
 
Savers: During the first presidential telecast from the White House, President Truman asked Americans to reduce their consumption of meat, eggs, and poultry-- to build up stockpiles of grain for war-ravaged Europe. Have your (children) think of an item or items that they could "do without" for a day to help a cause. Perhaps you could include other classrooms in a plan to designate one day each month as do-Without-for-a-Cause Day.
 
The world's greatest inventor: Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope projected a clearer, steadier image than other projectors and screen devices. During his lifetime, Edison developed an incredible number of inventions. Have your (children) graph his contributions according to the following categories: electronic light and power, 389; phonograph, 195; telegraph, 150; storage battery and related items, 141; ore separation, 62; telephone, 62; railroad, 26; motion pictures, 9; automobile, 8; mimeograph, 6; typewriter, 3.
 
Movie first: The Jazz Singer, called the first talking motion picture, was actually more silent than talking. Al Jolson, a popular singer who was the movie's star, belted out three songs and spoke the words "You ain't heard nothin' yet, folks," giving the film a total of 291 spoken words. The rest of the film was silent with captions. The first all talking movie, The Lights of New York, came out the following year, 1928.
Tell your (children) that when The Jazz Singer premiered, some people predicted that talking pictures would never succeed. Similar views have been expressed about the automobile, the computer, and the automatic teller machine. Lead a discussion on why people often turn away from new ideas and technologies. Ask your (children) to list things that they believe won't become an accepted part of our culture.
 
Rosy pick: Before the rose was selected as the national flower, 70 bills proposing other flowers were introduced. How do your (children) feel about the choice of the rose? What flowers would they have suggested, and why? Have them prepare a brief informational report, with an illustration, for their nominations. Take a vote.
 
Fire stoppers: The Great Chicago Fire destroyed 18,000 buildings and left 100,000 people homeless. Have your (children) identify potential fire hazards in their home ... . If any students don't have the local fire department's number on their home phone, have them write it on a self-adhesive label ... , and put it there.
 
Fairy tales, opera style: Tell your (children) that an opera is a story told in song. Then play some of Engelbert Humperdinck's opera Hansel and Gretel. Have the kids select a favorite fairy tale or story and divide the plot into three acts. Challenge them to select popular music that would be appropriate for the plot, rewriting the lyrics if they want. Then they could perform the fairy tale as a puppet show for younger students.
 
A Perfect day: In 1956 Don Larsen realized a baseball pitcher's ultimate dream when he pitched a perfect game. Invite your (children) to describe their perfect day. For some, this "day in the sun" might already have happened. For others, it might be a cherished dream.
 
More than Money: In 1843 Charles Dickens found himself desperate for money. He needed to produce a book that would be a quick and sure success, so he lifted a subplot from his already-published novel The Pickwick Papers and called it A Christmas Carol. But Dickens fell in love with his story. Despite his financial straits, he priced the book as cheaply as possible so more readers could buy it. Ask your (children) to write about a situation that produced a change of heart in them.
 
To fingerprint or not to fingerprint: Fingerprinting has been around  for at least 3,000 years. The ancient Chinese used fingerprints as official seals on documents. More recently, law-enforcement agencies have used fingerprinting to identify crime suspects. Your (children) may be aware of an even-newer trend: Certain local police departments, parent groups, clubs, and schools have begun fingerprinting children to help locate these children should they become missing. Some people feel this is a violation of children's civil rights, especially if the prints are controlled by an official agency. What do your (children) think? Have them list pros and cons--and alternatives.
 
Costume Party: Instead of wearing the traditional white tie and dress coat with tails, Griswold Lorillard wore a tailless jacket and a scarlet satin vest to a ball in Tuxedo Park, N.Y. This new look was dubbed the tuxedo. Ask your (children) to think of an outfit they'd like to rent for a day. It might be a suit of armor, a clown's costume, a spacesuit, scuba gear, or a fire fighter's uniform. Have each child explain the reason for his selection in this journal.
 
In the bag: Years ago, the bicycle was an important mode of travel. For this reason, the luggage carrier, designed especially for use with bikes, was quite popular. Have each student sketch the outline of a piece of luggage and inside draw four items a favorite book character might pack. Divide the class into groups, and have group members take turns showing their drawings while the others guess who would carry the luggage.
 
Famous First Lady: In This Is My Story, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote, "No one can make you feel inferior without your consent." Ask your (children) what she meant by that remark. Can your (children) remember when someone damaged their self-confidence or tried to put them down? How did they feel, and what did they do about it?
As a young girl, Eleanor Roosevelt was extremely shy. When have your (children) felt that way? What did they do to overcome their shyness? (Grandma can partially agree with Eleanor. Grandma believes she was a very famous woman and found ways to hold strong but she says these things in her books to keep children and adults from feeling bad or low, but it is awfully hard for some children to come to these conclusions when they are young and don't know these words spoken by Eleanor. They can go into life feeling they were unworthy and still are to society especially if  they are a little more enthusiastic than the down trodders about them. They let their own guard down when they didn't even know what their guards were.Some people have a harder time dealing with their emotions than others also. In all reality the people or children putting others down are those that hold there own emotions as a sword to downtrodden the world.)
 
Home of the bard: The Globe Theater, the largest open-air theater in London, held about 2,500 people. Shakespeare's plays appealed to a diverse audience, so the theater was built to accommodate members of the upper and lower classes. Ordinary people stood in the "pit" area below the stage, while the wealthy sat in tiered galleries. Do your (children) think they live in a society that has a class system? Why or why not.
 
New perspective: Have your (children) pretend they're in a balloon hovering above the (house). What would the building look like? What about the shrubs and trees? The jungle gym and swings? Students at play during recess? Challenge the kids to draw an aerial view of the school. Then have them discuss their illustrations in small groups.
 
Nicknames: Theodore Roosevelt had many nicknames, including Bull Moose, Driving Force, Dynamo of Power, Four eyes, Man on Horseback, Old Lion, T.R., Hero of San Juan Hill, and Meddler. Challenge your (children) to find out the origins of these nicknames. Then invite them to share the stories behind their nicknames.
 
Pooh party!: Celebrate the debut of Winnie the Pooh with a theme party. Invite your kids to make  Pooh-related decorations. Encourage them to bring a stuffed Pooh character or a favorite stuffed animal dressed like pooh or one of his friends from the Hundred Acre Wood. Read one of the Pooh stories while your (children) enjoy a special snack, such as Kanga Kupcakes or Piglet's Popcorn. How about Pooh's honey.
 
Up and Away: Major Charles E. Yeager became the first person to travel faster than the speed of sound (Oct. 14, 1947). His flight, at an altitude of 43,000 feet above sea level, was clocked at 700 mph. How does that speed compare with the speed of a jogger, a bicycle rider, and Indy 500 race car, and a charging rhinoceros? Tell your (children) that the first time Yeager flew, he got very sick. But he loved the feel of flight so much that he forced himself to overcome this sensitivity. Did any of your (children) keep plugging away at something until they got better at it? Invite them to share their personal stories.
 
Balloon ride: Ask your (children) to find out the difference between a hot-air balloon and a dirigible. (A dirigible has a hard internal framework and is kept aloft by lighter-than-air gases, whereas a hot-air balloon relies on heated air and does not have an infrastructure.)
 
Trillion tickler(based on a discovery of a solar system to be 293 trillion miles from earth Oct. 15, 1984): Here's how to make 293 trillion more comprehensible to your (children). Have them use calculators to determine their approximate age in days, then in hours, then in minutes. When they figure out their age in seconds, they'll be working with numbers in the hundreds of millions! challenge them to figure out how many years old they'd be at one trillion seconds. (319.7.) Can anyone figure out how many round trips to the sun would equal 293 trillion miles? (5,376 trips) For younger students, pass out 12 large zeros plus a one and have them line up to form one trillion.
 
Big birds: You'd expect to find ostriches--the world's largest living birds--in Africa, but how about in Oklahoma? (In the Okie Ostrich Ranch of Marlow, Okla. opened Oct. 15, 1986) When profits from traditional farm products such as cattle and wheat dropped, some ranchers in southern Oklahoma turned to a new industry--ostriches. Getting started isn't cheap; people have spent up to $10,000 for one breeding pair. Ostrich meat tastes like a combination of pork and turkey, and ostrich hide is used to make boots, gloves, and purses. Do your (children) believe that ostriches really stick their heads in sand? Ask them to list other animal myths.
 
Helping hands: Mother Teresa's religious order, the Missionaries of Charity, provides food, shelter, and medical care for the needy in about 30 countries. Ask the kids to comment on the saying "Charity begins at home." What are some suggestions they have for helping the less fortunate of their community?(Based on her award of the Nobel Peace Prize Oct. 17, 1979.)
 
Women's rights advocate: Even as a young girl, Lucy Stone was ware of the unequal status of women. When she married Henry Blackwell in 1858, she became the first woman to keep her maiden name. Nowadays, many women chose not to use their husband's last name. They're called "lucy stoners." Can your (children) think of other common nouns based on personal names?
 
Mr. October et al: Reggie Jackson was called Mr. October. Ask your (children) why this nickname was appropriate. Then have them think of other baseball players' nicknames--for example the Sultan of Swat (Babe Ruth), the Say Hey Kid (Willie Mays), the splendid splinter (Ted Williams), the Iron Horse (Lou Gehrig). Have the kids draw a picture that illustrates a baseball nickname literally. For example, an illustration o Dwight Gooden's nickname, Dr. K, might show the letter K adorned with a stethoscope and surgical mask.
 
Child adviser: While campaigning for the presidency, Abraham Lincoln received baskets of mail every day. And he took the advice of 11-year-old Grace Bedell, whose letter suggested that he grow a beard because "Your face is so thin" and "the ladies like whiskers." After the election, Lincoln stopped in Westfield, N.Y. to meet his young adviser. Ask your (children) why Lincoln is such a recognizable president. Which other presidents are physically distinctive? Then compare political cartoons with photos of today's leaders. How do the cartoonists make their subjects so recognizable?
 
Rocket Man: When Robert Goddard was a boy, he'd climb an oak tree at night, look at the moon, and imagine he could travel there on a rocket. His imagination was fired by two of H.G. Wells's books, First Men on the Moon and War of the Worlds, which were filled with imaginative predictions of space travel. Invite your (children) to share book titles and stories that have fired their imaginations.
 
Museum in the round: Architect Frank Lloyd Wright used right angles in most of his building designs, but he was in a "circular mood" when he planned the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Wright's finished design looked like a giant spiral sculpture. Show your (children) a picture of the Goggenheim Museum. Tell them that some people call the building a "giant snail," whereas others think it's "the most beautiful building in New York." How do your (children) feel? What other buildings or structures do they think of as giant works of art?
 
Copy king: As a law student, Chester Carlson spent hours copying information from library books. And he worked in a patent office, where making multiple copies of patents was a laborious task. To find an easier way to get copies, he built his own laboratory and developed xerography. Years after investing in Carlson's process, the Haloid Company changed its name to Xerox Corporation. The corporation is proud of its name and history and objects when people use "xerox" as a synonym for "photocopy." How do your (children) feel about Xerox's point of view? Can they think of other trade names--such as Kleenex and Plexiglas--that are misused as common nouns?
 
First flying female: Seven years after the Wright brothers flew a heavier-than-air machine, Blanche Scott became the first woman to fly solo. She later became the first woman test pilot. Blanche Scott, entered a field that had been "for Men only" Today, women pursue a wide range of careers in aviation. Ask your (children) to list these careers. What jobs are still for men only or women only?
 
A right for all: From colonial times on, groups of women worked to gain the right to vote, often in the face of great opposition. Why, do your (children) think, were some men opposed? And why were some women opposed? Invite your (children) to pretend they've joined the "march for suffrage." Have them design a poster they could carry, compose a song they could sing, or write a slogan they could shout as they march.
 
Fall gal: Annie Edson Taylor wanted to prove how daring she could be. She placed a 100-pound blacksmith's anvil (for ballast) at the bottom of a wood barrel and squeezed herself inside. Attendants packed pillows around her, screwed the lid on tight, and pushed the barrel toward Niagara Falls. The barrel plummeted 158 feet straight down and disappeared beneath the turbulent water. It finally popped up hundreds of yards below the falls. When rescuers recovered her, Taylor said, "Nobody ought ever to do that again." Have your (children) figure out how many desks they'd need to stack to match the distance of Taylor's fall. As a special challenge, give (your children)  a paper bag and a raw egg. Have them devise a way to prevent the egg from breaking in a fall. Test their ideas by dropping their inventions from various heights. (Discuss why Annie Taylor said what she did in the end. Discuss what she may have gone through during that fall to feel that way.)
 
Bitten by the love bug: A bull moose in Vermont spent over 10 weeks following a Hereford cow named Jessica. Thousands of sightseers watched the moose woo and nuzzle its bovine sweetheart. Tell your (children) that a moose in the woods is well camouflaged: Its legs blend with the tree trunks; its brown body fades into the shadows; and its antlers look like branches. Ask your (children) to draw other animals that rely on camouflage. (Also have the children do some research to see if this kind of a phenomena can happen often and what the outcome could be.)
 
Backbreaker: The Erie Canal was completed after 8 years of construction. Using wheelbarrows, shovels, and other hand tools, the crew dug a ditch 4 feet deep, 40 feet wide at ground level, and 28 feet wide at the base. Eighty-three locks were built to enable ships to make the climb from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. Have your (children)use a map scale in their atlas to figure out the length of the canal, which runs from Albany to Buffalo, N.Y.
 
Class charity: Raise money for a Red Cross charity by holding a used-toy sale. Ask your (children) to collect old toys, and arrange them by price--25¢, 50¢, $1, and so on. ... make posters advertising the event, send invitations, produce a video about the event and its purpose, and speak about the event ....
 
Book math: After outgrowing its 88 miles of stacks, the New York Public Library began building an underground extension. Books stored there will be brought to the main library when needed. The extension, which will hold 3.2 million books, should fill up fast because the library acquires over 150,000 books each year. Ask your (children) to estimate the number of books in their library. Collect enough books to make a stack 1 meter high. Then have the kids use this information to estimate how many meters high all the books in their library stacked together would reach. Can your (children) think of other ways to solve this problem? Ask your librarian to check your class's estimate.
 
Determined record-breaker: Pole-sitter Melissa Sanders was determined to raise $100,000 for cancer research. Her sister Rebecca was a cancer patient. Tell your (children) that Melissa's pole-top "home," which was a 42-square-foot box, included a telephone, a television, and a small plastic pool for baths. Ask your (children) what they would take with them if they were attempting to break Melissa's record. Have them use grid paper to determine some possible shapes for a 42-square-foot "home." (42-square feet is still quite a bit of space.)
 
Masses welcome: The sonnet "The New Colossus," by Emma Lazarus, is inscribed on a bronze plaque inside the Statue of Liberty's pedestal. Read it to your students, then have them write their own inscriptions for the Statue of Liberty in their journals. (This would be a good time to talk about the Statue of Liberty and where it came from.)
 
Peeking at prints: Try some dactyloscopy (fingerprinting) with your class. Have your (children) rub a sharpened #2 pencil on a piece of paper until they've produced a dark, shiny patch. Next, they should lightly rub their index finger over the patch, then cover that finger with a piece of clear adhesive tape. Place the tape on an index card or on an overhead transparency. Have your (children) compare fingerprints and make observations. Tell them that a police computer can examine over 600 prints per second. How many is that per minute? Per hour?
 
Cloud capers: Throughout history, people have tried to change the weather. They've chanted, danced, and even fired rockets. Modern technology has enabled scientists to modify the weather somewhat. With cloud seeding, dry ice or silver iodide is added to very cold clouds to promote the formation of ice crystals.This method can clear fog over airports and increase precipitation by up to 30 percent in certain circumstances. Ask (the children) to illustrate other ways humans have successfully dealt with the weather (heaters, air conditioners, humidifiers, irrigation systems, landscaping techniques).
Next , follow this simple procedure to create a cloud for your (children). Pour about an inch of very hot water into a large glass jar. Then fill a metal cake pan with ice cubes and place it on top of the jar. Take the jar into a darkened room and shine a flashlight on it. Your (children) will see a small cloud and, if they're observant, drops of precipitation on the bottom of the pan.
 
Power of the pen: As a journal assignment, have your (children) compare and contrast a fountain pen and a ballpoint pen. ...Encourage the kids to write a letter--from the fountain pen's perspective--describing its feelings about being obsolete. What do your (children) own that might be obsolete by the time they're adults?
 
Black Hills stone faces: Sculptor Gutzon Borglum needed to select four presidents to memorialize on Mount Rushmore. He looked for leaders who practiced the ideal "Man has a right to be free and to be happy." His first three choices--Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln--were obvious. For the fourth, President Calvin Coolidge suggested Theodore Roosevelt, who, he believed, had established the United States as an industrial giant with a backbone of dedicated workers. With this endorsement, Borglum's group was complete. Have your (children) nominate and vote on four present-day leaders they'd memorialize on a Rushmore-like monument.
 
Kid power: On Halloween morning in 1987, the pickup truck driven by Rocky Lyonns's mother hit a pothole. It flipped over and rolled down an embankment. Five-year-old Rocky pushed his dazed mother out of the truck. She'd sustained bad cuts on her face and two broken shoulders. With Rocky pushing his mother from behind, the two began to crawl up the embankment. Rocky's mother didn't think she could make it, but the boy kept repeating a line from The Little Engine That Could: "I think I can, I think I can." Once they reached the road, a truck driver stopped and took them to the hospital. Have the famous words "I think I can" ever gotten your (children) through a tough situation?"
 
 
 

Day 176

Posted on May 28, 2014 at 1:00 AM Comments comments (10)
Today Grandma will keep coving the time line until the last day of homeschooling time. However she realized there were some activities that were left behind in September and October that need to be given to you this week. Therefore, she will give them to you first. Next she will cover the rest of the Calendar history for the time line and calendars for May. Next she will go into the summer months in the Calendar history, give some more fun things to do for summer as we go along; cover her books used and Patricia's material; as well as some more on real estate investing.; and anything else she can think of to give you.
 
For the 178th day hopefully given tomorrow Grandma will give you the events for the time line covering the 1800's and 1900's. of November and the 179th day December. Today (the 176th day) she will give you the activities for September and the 177th day (tomorrow for sure) October for that time period first.
 
Activities from Book (1) for September 1800 and 1900
 
"Fabulous Flocks:Very few bird species were as numerous as the passenger pigeon. For hours on end, flocks numbering 1 billion to 2 billion would darken the sky. One breeding colony in Michigan covered a 2 X1/2-mile area. Have (the children) look at a road map of their hometown and pick a location about 28 miles away. About how long would it take to drive to that location? Next, have them pick a place that's about 3 1/2 miles away. How long would it take to ride a bicycle to that place? Invite your (children) to read more about the passenger pigeon and the mystery of its disappearance.
 
The "unsinkable": The Titanic measured 882 feet in length. Have your (children) develop their own scale to compare the length of the Titanic ... . As a special homework challenge, ask them to take an 882-foot walk. Have the walkers compare how they kept track of the distance they covered.
If placed upright, the Titanic would have been taller than any building of her day. Have your (children) compare her in an upright position to the Washington Monument, the Empire State Building, the Sears Tower, the Pyramid of Cheops, the Eiffel Tower, a local monument.
 
First Jobs: (following up on the fact that Barney Flaherty became the First Newsboy in the U.S.September 4,1833) Ten-year-old Barney Flaherty got his job delivering papers by answering the following classified ad in the New York Sun: "To the Unemployed--a number of steady men can find employment by vending this paper." What are some ways your (children) earn extra money? What do they do with the money they earn? 
 
Dear Beatrix Potter (in a 1893 event):Beatrix Potter had many pets when she was growing up. She called one of her rabbits Peter Piper, a name she later used for the hero of a picture letter she went to Noel Moore, her best friend's son. This get-well letter began, "I shall tell you a story about four little rabbits whose names were Flopsy, Mopsy, Cottontail, and Peter...." Ask your students to create their own "get-well picture letters" to send to the children's ward at a local hospital.
 
Calculated lengths: The Graf Zeppelin was 776 feet long. Take your students to the gym, hallway, or parking lot and mark off the airship's length. Today's airships--seen on TV panoramas of major sports events--measure about 192 feet long. Have your students use their calculators to compare the lengths.
 
Tunnel trip(based on a Sept. 5 event of 1980):Help your (children) get a sense for the distance of Switzerland's St. Gotthard Tunnel by having them use road maps or atlases to find locations that are 10 miles from their homes. Get out the calculators and find out how long it would take to travel through the tunnel at various speeds--15 mph, 35 mph, 55 mph. Encourage the (children) to graph their findings.
 
"Uncle Sam" and other nicknames(upon an event Sept. 7, 1813 of "uncle Sam in the Troy, NY, newspaper): The real "Uncle Sam was Samuel Wilson, inspector of provisions for the United States Army in New York and New Jersey during the War of 1812. An employee at Wilson's meat-packing plant jokingly told visitors that the "US" stamped on each barrel of meat stood for "Uncle Sam" Wilson. (These initials actually stood for "United States.") By the end of the War of 1812, "Uncle Sam" was widely used as a nickname for the U.S. government. Invite your (children) to share the stories behind their nicknames, or those of family or friends. If they could select nicknames for themselves, what would they choose and why?
 
Dam dimensions(to celebrate the opening of Boulder Dam Sept. 7, 1936:Hoover Dam, located in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, is 726 feet high and 1,244 feet long. Have your (children) compare its height with that of the school flagpole, and its length with that of a school bus. Tell your (children that Hoover Dam's concrete base is 660 feet deep and contains 3 1/4 million cubic yards of concrete--enough to pave a two-lane highway from New York to San Francisco. Ask the kids to use a map scale to figure out that distance.
 
Honors to the flag(Sept. 8, 1892 was National Pledge of Allegiance Day):The first flag salute read:"I give my heart and my hand to my country--one country, one language, one flag." Some people thought this salute was "too juvenile and lacking in dignity." Ask your (children) to compare and contrast the first flag salute and today's pledge. How do they feel about the original?
 
Pocketbook shock(Sept. 9, 1851 proposed average working-class budget):Ask your (children) to ...(consider) how much it takes per week to feed, clothe, and house the family. (The children) can then compare and contrast these present-day budgets with the 1851 amount of $10.37. (They'll have to adjust the figures to fit the size of their own family.) They also might want to conduct an oral history survey by asking seniors in their families or communities to recall the cost of a a movie ticket, a visit to the doctor, oil or gas, a candy bar, a bus or train ride, a car, and so on. What surprised them the most?(1851 was still in the times of the pioneers and no one from that age is still alive. Most people homesteaded. Before that they came from people who had money or worked for others and built their land taken from the natives. In the time of the depression: a home might only cost $2000 to $15,000; but people only made $9.00/ day I believe on the railroad if they were lucky to be able to work for them. Grandma will check on it. People rarely had meat to eat in the depression like many people from Mexico today. We have come a long way from that. Some had factory jobs in the cities like now. My mother scrubbed floors to put my father through accounting school which is different now also. However, he worked in a factory also, he may have done books for someone at that time. Grandma is not sure on that. A lot of people did not have work in places during the 1800's. They ate off the land, had their own cows, pigs, deer, shot other game and built houses on land taken from the natives. How money was spent was a lot different. Even at the time Grandma started out a computer job only made $2.35/hour. Most houses were only 20,000 or less.)
 
White House kids (Sept. 9,1893 the first baby, a girl, was born in the White house.)In honor of the anniversary of the birth of President Grover Cleveland's daughter, challenge your (children) to name other presidential children and do some research to discover more. What would be some of the advantages and disadvantages of being a "presidential progeny"?
 
Taking flight:In 1908 Orville Wright made 57 complete circles over Fort Myer, Va., at an altitude of 120 feet. The flight lasted 1 hour and 2 minutes and set several records. Ask your (children) to guess where a flight of 1 hour and 2 minutes could take today's passengers. Then have them check their atlases.
 
Sewing celebration:Elias Howe's first sewing machine--which imitated the human arm sewing--was a failure. But he didn't give up. With his father's financial support, he developed a second machine that could sew 250 stitches a minute. Ask Your (children) how many stitches they think a human can sew in a minute. Set a timer and ask a few volunteers to sew. Ask calculators to figure out the average, then compare it with the machine's rate. Finally, have your (children) write about someone they know who, like Elias Howe, wouldn't give up.
 
Coast to coast: When the Lincoln Highway was officially dedicated, groups of Boy Scouts across the country simultaneously put up the road signs. Have your (children) use their atlases to find other geographic locations named in honor of President Lincoln. Ask...(the children) to write the grid coordinates or latitude-longitude readings for the various locations so others can find them. Challenge (the children) to find locations named after other U.S. presidents.
 
Doggie graph(Sept. 10 1927 the hot dog appeared in butcher shops): Ask your (children) to list what they like to put on a hot dog--onions, relish, ketchup, mustard, chili, cheese, and so on. Then have (them) predict what the (families) most popular hot dog fixin' will be. Tally the results in a bar graph form.
 
Personalized parks: After New York City bought an 843-acre tract of land for development into a public park, it announced a competition for the park design. The winner was "Greensward," a landscape plan that included groves, rock outcroppings, foot and bridle paths, carriage drives, and bridges. Have your (children) create maps--complete with paths, recreation trails, bodies o water, playgrounds, entrances, and exits--of an imaginary park. After the designs are finished, ask your students what they think landscape architects must keep in mind as they work to plan--or improve--a park.
 
Comic relief (Sept. 11, 1875 the first newspaper cartoon strips"Professor Tigwissel's Burglar Alarm" was published.): Ask your (children) to list their favorite comic strips. Why do they like them? Are all comic strips funny? Do any of your (children) identify with a particular comic strip character? Look at several comic strips to see how cartoonists use frames to tell a story. Then have your (children) create their own version of one of these favorites or devise a new comic strip in which characters from one strip interact with characters from another.
 
Baseball bonanza: Commemorate Pete Rose's record-breaking 4,192nd base hit by having teams of students select another baseball milestone and illustrate it--commemorative plate style--on a paper plate.
 
Olympic flashback(I am not sure if it was mentioned with Jesse Owens birthday on Sept. 12, 1913 but Grandma always has this one one her mind.): Jesse Owens deflated Adolf Hitler's "Aryan race" theory by winning gold medals in the 100 meters, 200 meters, 400-meter relay, and long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Have a group of students research Hitler's "Aryan race" theory and report its basic premise to the class. Then discuss the flaws in Hitler's argument. Can your students think of current examples of racial or ethnic prejudice?
 
Artists then and now(An event that actually happened in 1940 but Grandma may have used it for the beginnings in her lessons.):The Lascaux Cave paintings depict a variety of animals important to people who lived 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. Show your (children) pictures of the paintings. Then divide the class into groups and ask each to create its own cave painting on a piece of large, brown butcher paper. Tell the groups to include pictures of animals that are important in their lives. To create a stone like effect, crumple the paper. Display the "cave paintings" ... .
 
Wonderful rhinoceros(displayed Sept 13, 1826): The rhinoceros dates back 20 million years. Today there are five species left, and they're all on the endangered list. Your (children) might be surprised to hear that a 5,500-pound adult rhino can gallop 24 mph. Ask them to use record books to compare the rhino's speed with that of other animals--including man.
 
Niagara Falls math(upon its illumination Sept. 14, 1860)-Create a three-dimensional Niagara Falls bulletin board with construction paper and ribbon. Post extra-credit math problems around the paper falls. For example, Your (children) could use almanacs and reference books to find out how many gallons of water flow over the falls in 1 minute, 1 hour, 1 day, their lifetime. They could compare the falls' height with ...(another building).
 
Thank you, Mr. Roosevelt (upon taking office Sept. 14, 1901):In 1902 President Teddy Roosevelt took a 5-day bear-hunting trip. Newspapers made fun of Roosevelt when he refused to shoot a small cub. But a candy-store owner in Brooklyn, N.Y., admired the president's decision. In Roosevelt's honor he sewed a plush toy bear, which he called a "Teddy Bear," and placed it in his window display. Read The First Teddy Bear by Helen Kay. Then have a teddy bear picnic--with your students'  favorite furry friends as guests of honor. Some (children) may want to dress a bear as their favorite storybook character.
 
A piece of pi (when the first calculation of it was made Sept. 15, 1949): The first computer-generated calculation of pi produced 2,037 decimal places in 70 hours. Today's supercomputers have reached 1,011,196,691 digits. If printed on a line, this calculation would stretch nearly halfway across the United States. Have your students figure out how many miles that would be.
 
"All the news that's fit to print" (upon the publication of The First New York Times Sept. 18,1851): Ask your (children) to list the many jobs associated with newspaper publishing. Did they remember the reporters, editors, copy editors, photographers, advertising sales representatives, graphic artists, and distributors? How about the cartoonists and columnists?
Tell your students that more than 500,000 trees are harvested to make the newspapers Americans read each Sunday. Ask (your children) to find out how their local newspaper is reducing, reusing, and recycling newsprint. Challenge them to find out about the process of recycling newsprint.
 
Mission to Mars: The United States and the Soviet Union had many cooperative space projects, including Apollo-Soyuz. When a cosmonaut and an astronaut met in Mars, Pa. --a town near Pittsburgh--they told school groups about their experiences in space and the U.S.-Soviet space efforts. Have your (children) use atlases to find other towns named for planets and other celestial bodies (Venus and Jupiter, Fla.: Earth and Mercury, Tex.; Neptune, N.J.)
 
Movie buffs (upon an event Sept. 19, 1990): The Library of Congress selected 25 outstanding movies for its National Film Registry. A committee considered over 1,000 movies before selecting such favorites as The Wizard of Oz, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and Star Wars. The Library of Congress will add a high quality print of each selected movie to its collection of over 75,000 films and TV shows. What movies would your (children) nominate--and why?
 
Safety first: Elisha Graves Otis invented a safety elevator that would operate automatically in case the lifting rope or chain broke. Discuss other safety devices, such as seat belts, air bags, and smoke and burglar alarms. Then have (the children) prepare safety rules for various places and situations: on the playground, in the classroom, at home, while bike riding, (in water, driving, etc). Have the (children) make posters to show their safety rules. (Save the one for water because that one will go along with the summer lessons.)
 
Breaking gender barriers: Belva Lockwood, an early leader in the struggle for equal rights for women and an 1884 U.S. presidential nominee, believed that women should be able to pursue careers. She acted on this belief by becoming a lawyer. One of her accomplishments was to gain equal pay for women government workers. Have (the children) interview working women who are in careers once considered "men's work."
 
Ecosystems under glass: Biosphere II is a 2 1/2-acre, glass-enclosed structure in Oracle, Ariz., that simulates five ecosystems: desert, marsh, ocean, savanna, and rain forest. The eight participants in the 2-year study were supposed to raise their own food and recycle everything they used. ...(have the children) organize a suitcase of essentials for the 2-year stay. Give (the children) the opportunity to present its "must-haves" ... . Then discuss what would be some of the positive and negative aspects of being a part of this experiment.
 
Peacemakers: Mark the anniversary of the establishment of the Peace Corps by asking (the children) to interview someone who has served as a volunteer. Invite the volunteers to speak about their experiences. Perhaps you students could develop activities for a neighborhood peace corps and undertake such projects as organizing a cleanup drive, tutoring, and working at senior centers. (Grandma suggests that if you do not know anyone who has worked for Peace Corps to look it up on Youtube to see if anyone has a video of their work or an article, etc.; maybe the library can help.)
 
Decisions, decisions: The time capsule buried on the grounds of the 1938 New York World's Fair included a Bible, a mail-order catalog, and films of President Roosevelt and of a football game. Ask teams of students to agree on four items they believe are representative of today's times, and have them explain their rationale. After all the teams have presented their selections to the class, vote for the top four choices.
 
Puzzler: As a homework assignment, have your students find out how many pieces are in the largest jigsaw puzzle they own. Have them calculate the class mean, median, and mode, then figure out the ratio between the number of pieces in their puzzle and the number of pieces in the world's largest puzzle.
 
Up and away: The first dirigible flew over Paris at a speed of 6 mph. Ask your (children) whether they think that is faster or slower than most birds fly. Then check an almanac. Next, have them figure out how many minutes it would take for the dirigible to fly 1 mile, 2 miles, and 4 miles.
 
Farsighted thinking: President Theodore Roosevelt was a champion of preserving beautiful areas of our country. Survey ... (your friends, neighbors, etc.) to determine how many (children) have visited  national park. Name the states where these parks are located, then find them on a map.
 
Not welcome: In Arkansas in 1957, school integration was the law--yet black students were far from welcome in white schools. When angry whites prevented nine black students from entering high school, President Eisenhower ordered troops to escort the students and guarantee their safety. Ask your students to imagine themselves as one of the nine and write a letter describing how they felt as they entered a place whee they knew they wouldn't find many, if any, friends.
 
Budget blast: Celebrate the opening of the First Children's Bank with a math game for teams of three to five students. Give each team a catalog and see which one can select the greatest number of items without exceeding $100. Next, instruct the teams to pick the fewest number of items totaling $100.
 
Record-setters:Marc Batard climbed Mt. Everest alone and without oxygen. Ask your (children) to use record books to find facts and other records about Mt. Everest. Then have them list other time-based records that caught their eye. What do they think motivates people to break records like these? Use the discussion as a way to help kids set personal goals for the year. Make a chart with Mt. Everest as the back-drop on which (the children) can list their school goals. Encourage them to refer to it as they progress.
 
Keep on tracking: To commemorate the first use of a locomotive to pull a passenger train, ask children to bring in toy trains, books about trains, or pictures of trains. Have the kids describe similarities and differences between trains of different eras. Then read aloud a railroad folktale about John Henry.
 
Channel challenge: Ask your students to find the English Channel in their atlases. Where do they think most swimmers cross? Why? (The narrowest point--21 miles--is between Dover and Cape Gris-Nez.) Have the kids use their calculators to figure out how many times they'd need to walk up and down the hall or around the ...parking lot or gym to equal 21 miles.
 
Wordplay addresses: Tell your students that the cable address of Scotland Yard--the headquarters of London's metropolitan police--is "Handcuffs, London." What other cable addresses can they invent for other famous places? (How about "U.S. Boss" for the White House?)
 
Commemorative coins:Children from the Young Astronauts Council designed coins to commemorate the space shuttle Discovery, the first shuttle launched after the Challenger tragedy. The gold coin shows a space shuttle in flight, the silver coin depicts an astronaut on the moon, and the bronze coin shows a shuttle combined with a section of the American flag. Ask your (children) to name some recent events that might merit the minting of special coins. Have the kids draw up some plans.
 
Tooth truth: ... Give each (child) a large construction pater tooth on which to draw pictures that illustrate good dental care.
 
Frisbee free-for-all: Take a break from your routine--and celebrate the Frisbee--with some outdoor activities. Set up a variety of events, such as a long distance Frisbee throw and a toss-the-Frisbee-through-the-Hula-Hoop game. You could also blindfold a student, have another child toss the Frisbee, and ask others in the group to direct the blindfolded child to the fallen disk. When your students get back inside, ask them to describe or draw a toy of the future. In what ways is it similar to and different from today's toys?"
 
 
 
 

Day 173

Posted on May 23, 2014 at 6:20 PM Comments comments (22)
Now for October's 1800's
 
Oct. 21, 1805 Britain's Lord Horatio Nelson defeated the Franco-Spanish
fleet at Trafalgar but was mortally wounded.
 
Oct. 2, 1810 The 1st Harvest Fair took place in Pittsfield, MA.
 
Oct. 1, 1814 "Star-Spangled Banner" was sung for the 1st time.
 
Oct. 19, 1814 The "Star-Spangled Banner" was sung for the 1st time, in Baltimore, MD.
 
Oct. 4, 1824 The Republic of Mexico was proclaimed.
 
Oct. 26, 1825 The Erie Canal opened.
 
Oct. 27, 1829 The 1st Patent for a Baby Carriage was issued in the U.S.
 
Oct. 22, 1836 Sam Houston became the 1st president of the Republic of Texas.
 
Oct. 24, 1836 The friction match was patented in the U.S. by A D. Phillips.
 
Oct. 25, 1940 Nylon Stockings first went on sale in America.
 
Oct. 9, 1843 Charles Dickens began writing A Christmas Carol.
 
Oct. 16, 1846 The 1st Surgical operation using ether as an anesthetic was
performed in Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
 
Oct. 1, 1847 American astronomer Maria Mitchell discovered a comet
named after her later.
 
Oct. 3, 1851 A Boa Constrictor at the London Zoo swallowed a blanket,
which it disgorged more than 3 weeks later.
 
Oct. 16, 1859 The abolitionist John Brown raided Harpers Ferry, W. Va/ amd
seized the federal arsenal.
 
Oct. 13, 1860 The 1st Aerial Photograph of part of the U.S. was taken from a
 balloon over Boston.
 
Oct. 19, 1860 An 11-year-old advised President Lincoln to grow a beard.
 
Oct. 24, 1861 The 1st Transcontinental Telegram was sent from San Francisco
to New York City.
 
Oct. 6, 1863 America's 1st Turkish Bath opened in Brooklyn, NY.
 
Oct. 26, 1863 The International Red Cross was established.
 
Oct. 31, 1864 Nevada became the 36th state.
 
Oct. 2, 1866 The 1st tin can with a key opener was patented by J. Osterhoudt
in New York City.
 
Oct. 18, 1867 The U.S. purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.
 
Oct. 11, 1868 Thomas Edison applied for a patent for his invention, an
 electric vote Recorder.
 
Oct. 1, 1869 Prestamped Postcards were put on sale.
 
Oct. 25, 1870 A postcard was 1st mailed in the U.S.
 
Oct. 8, 1871 The most disastrous Forest fire in recorded history destroyed
Peshtigo, WIS., killing 1,182 people.
 
Oct. 8, 1871 The Great Chicago Fire which claimed 250 lives and
destroyed most of the city; started at Mrs. O'Leary's barn.
 
Oct. 19, 1873 Football rules were formulated in New York City.
 
Oct. 20, 1873 P.T. Barnum opened "The Greatest Show on Earth"
at the Hippodrome in New York City.
 
Oct. 21, 1879 Thomas Edison successfully tested the Incandescent
 Electric Light Bulb.
 
Oct. 22, 1883 The Metropolitan Opera House in New York opened.
 
Oct. 12, 1885 Thomas Adams, a chewing-gum manufacturer introduced
the 1st Vending Machine in the U.S. It dispensed gum balls.
 
Oct. 10, 1886 Englishman Griswald Lorillard introduced the Tuxedo
in Tuxedo Park, NY.
 
Oct. 28, 1886 The Statue of Liberty was unveiled in New York Harbor.
 
Oct. 31, 1886 Arthur Conan Doyle's 1st Sherlock Holmes story
"A study in Scarlet," was bought for 25 pounds.
 
Oct. 11, 1887 The 1st adding-machine patent was issued.
 
Oct. 9, 1888 The Washington Monument opened.
 
Oct. 30, 1888 The Ballpoint Pen was patented.
 
Oct. 6, 1889 Thomas Edison exhibited his Kinetoscope, a peep
show device for viewing short motion pictures.
 
Oct. 18, 1892 The 1st Long-Distance telephone line, from New York City
 to Chicago, opened.
 
Oct. 8, 1895 Englebert Humperdinck's opera Hansel and Gretel
 premiered in the U.S.
 
Oct. 10, 1899 The Luggage Carrier was patented by John Butts.
 
Oct. 9, 1899 Robert Goddard, at 17, began to speculate in his journal
about a spaceship that could travel to Mars.
 
 

Day 172

Posted on May 23, 2014 at 5:18 PM Comments comments (25)
Grandma will start the rest of the Timeline information starting with September.
 
September 23, 1806 The Lewis and Clark expedition came to an end as the
 explorers completed their homeward trip to St. Louis. It took 2 years, 4 months
 and 10 days.
 
September 4, 1807 Robert Fulton began operating his 1st Steamboat on the
Hudson River.
 
Sept. 7, 1813 The nickname "Uncle Sam" 1st appeared in print, in a
Troy, NY newspaper.
 
Sept.14, 1814 Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" as the
British shelled Fort McHenry.
 
Sept. 15, 1821 Costa Rica gained its independence from Spain.
 
Sept. 7, 1822 Brazil declared its independence from Portugal.
 
Sept. 27, 1825 In England a locomotive was used for the 1st time to pull a
passenger train.
 
Sept 13, 1826 A rhinoceros was 1st exhibited in the U.S.
 
Sept. 29, 1829 Scotland Yard was established.
 
Sept. 4, 1833 Barney Flaherty became the 1st Newsboy in the U.S.
 
Sept. 5, 1836 Sam Houston was elected the 1st president of the Republic of Texas.
 
Sept. 9, 1836 Abraham Lincoln received a license to practice law.
 
Sept. 30, 1841 Samuel Slocum patented the Stapler. He called it a "machine for
 sticking pins into paper."
 
Sept. 13, 1845 The knickerbocker Club of New York set down
the 1st Base Rules.
 
Sept. 10, 1846 Elias Howe patented the Sewing Machine.
 
Sept. 12, 1846 English poets Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett
were married.
 
Sept. 23, 1846 Johann Galle, a German astronomer, discovered the planet
Neptune.
 
Sept. 30, 1846 William Morton became the first dentist to extract a tooth
with the help of anesthesia.
 
Sept. 9, 1850 California became the 31st state.
 
Sept. 9, 1851 A weekly budget of $10.37 was proposed for the average
working-class family of five.
 
Sept. 18, 1851 The New York Times was 1st published.
 
Sept. 24, 1852 The 1st Dirigible was flown over Paris at 6 mph.
 
Sept. 20, 1853 Inventor Elisha Otis said his 1st freight "Safety Elevator"
 which didn't fall even with cut cables.
 
Sept. 11, 1857 Frederick Law Olmsted was appointed superintendent
of Central Park in New York City.
 
Sept. 19, 1859 The Confederate War Song "Dixie" was sung for the 1st time.
 
Sept. 14, 1860 Niagara Falls was illuminated for the 1st time.
 
Sept. 22, 1862 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
 
Sept. 6, 1866 Frederick Douglas became the 1st black delegate to a
 national political convention.
 
Sept. 28, 1869 Aristides Berges became the 1st person to transform a
 waterfall's mechanical energy into electrical energy.
 
Sept. 10, 1875 The American Forestry Association became the first U.S.
 conservation organization.
 
Sept. 11, 1875 The 1st Newspaper Cartoon strip, called "professor Tigwissel's
 Burglar Alarm, "was published in the New York Daily Graphic.
 
Sept. 19, 1881 Vice President Chester Arthur succeeded James Garfield as the
21st President of the U.S.
 
Sept. 5, 1882 10,000 people marched in the 1st Labor Day Parade.
 
Sept. 25, 1882 The 1st major league doubleheader was played between
the Providence and Worcester teams.
 
Sept. 4, 1883 The 1st Self-Service Restaurant opened in New York City.
 
Sept. 14, 1886 George Andersen patented the typewriter ribbon.
 
Sept. 4, 1888 George Eastman received a patent for the Kodak Camera.
 
Sept. 19, 1988 Twenty-five American mothers and children returned from
 an exchange program with the Soviet Union.
 
Sept. 18, 1889 Social reformer Jane Addams moved into Hall House,
 America's 1st Settlement House.
 
Sept. 25, 1890 Congress established Yosemite Nat'l. Park in California.
 
Sept. 8, 1892 Nat'l pledge of Allegiance Day-- the "Pledge of
Allegiance" was 1st published in the magazine Youth's Companion.
 
Sept. 28, 1892 The 1st Night Football Game took place.
 
Sept. 4, 1893 Beatrix Potter sent a get-well letter about a rabbit
family to 5 year old Noel Moore.
 
Sept. 9, 1893 President Grover Cleveland's wife became the
mother of a baby girl, the 1st child born to a 1st Lady in
the White House.
 
Sept. 21, 1893 Frank Duryea drove the 1st successful gasoline-
powered car in America on the streets of Springfield, Mass.
 
Sept. 21, 1897 "Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus" proclaimed a
now-famous New York Sun editorial.

Day 171

Posted on May 23, 2014 at 12:44 PM Comments comments (30)
Good Morning! Grandma is typing up May 23 of the Calendar History here and the experiments on Light from Book (12). Grandma forgot to mention that she will be typing up some more experiments for the Summer and Her Books she is using on separate blogs as well as finishing the material from Patricia. Look for it later into next week. For now we will finish these experiments and the school season history.
 
May 23 1707 Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist and founder taxonomy, was born. Book (1) says under Plant classifications, "Have your (children) look up the word taxonomy in the dictionary. Then encourage them to walk through their (neighborhood) to observe flowering plants, writing careful notes of the specimens they find. Have them use these observational records and their research skills to find the scientific names of their plants.(see if they are edible and good for what things)
In 1734 Dr. Franz Mesmer, German physician who developed a treatment called mesmerism, which is the basis of the word mesmerize, was born. In 1824 Ambrose Everett Burnside, American Civil War general whose whiskers on the side of his were called Burnsides and later sideburns, was born. Then in 1910 Margaret Wise Brown, children's author, was born. Book (1) says, "Margaret Wise Brown wrote stories about feeling lonesome, getting lost, and acting naughty or silly. She wrote more than 100 books in her career, some published under the pen names Golden MacDonald, Timothy Hay, and Juniper Sage. Have your (children) each write a story using one of the topics Brown often wrote about. Then have them choose their own pen names. Why did they select a particular name?
The events start with 1785 In a letter, Benjamin Franklin wrote about his new invention, Bifocal Eyeglasses. In 1788 South Carolina became the eighth state. In 1873 Canada established the Northwest Mounted Police.
In 1903 Eleven-year-old William Frederick Price became the Youngest soldier to enlist in the British Army in this century. In 1984 C. Everett Koop, the U.S. surgeon general, said there was solid evidence that Nonsmokers can suffer Long Damage from Inhaling Other People's Cigarette Smoke. In 1989 An Italian interior designer named Stefania Follini Climbed out of the Cave in Carlsbad, N.M., in which she had spent the previous 130 days.
We will finish the line for May starting Monday. I may get it to you sooner.
 
 
The experiments on Light from Book (12) are as follows:
 
Pinhole Camera
Bore a hole in the middle of the base of a box. Stretch parchment paper over the mouth of the box and secure it with a rubber band. If you focus this simple camera on a brightly lit building from a dark room, the image appears upside down on the screen.
Our eyes work on the same principle. The light rays fall through the pupil and lens and project an inverted image on the retina. The image is turned the right way up again in the sight center of the brain.
 
Drop microscope
Bore a hole about one fifth of an inch wide in a strip of metal and smooth the edges. Bend the metal so that you can fix it with adhesive tape half an inch above the bottom of a thin glass. A pocket mirror is placed inside on a cork, so that it is on a slant. If you dab a drop of water into the hole, you can see small living organisms and other things through it, magnified by up to fifty times.
The drop magnifies like a convex lens. When you bring your eye near to it the sharpness can be adjusted by bending the metal inwards. The angle of the mirror is adjusted automatically by moving the glass.
 
Fire through ice
You would hardly believe it, but you can light a fire with ice! Pour some water which you have previously boiled for several minutes into a symmetrically curved bowl, and freeze it. You can remove the ice by heating slightly. You can concentrate the sun's rays with the ice as you would with a magnifying glass and set thin black paper alight, for instance.
The air in fresh water forms tiny bubbles on freezing and makes the ice cloudy. But only cooled imperceptibly when they pass through the ice.
 
Shortened spoon
Look from just above the rim of a bucket of water, and dip a spoon upright into it. The spoon seems to be considerably shorter under the water.
This illusion is based on the fact that the light rays reflected from the immersed spoon do not travel in a straight line to your eyes. They are bent at an angle at the surface of the water, so that you see the end of the spoon higher up. Water always seems more shallow than it actually is because of the refraction of light. The American Indians also knew this. If they wanted to hit a fish with an arrow or spear, they had to aim a good deal deeper than the spot where the fish appeared to be.
 
Shadow play
Lay a penny in a cup near the side. Place the cup in oblique light so that the shadow of the rim just covers the coin. How can you free the penny from the shadow without moving the cup or the coin or using a pocket mirror? Quite simple! Bend the light rays back to the coin. Fill the cup with water and the shadow moves to the side. The light rays do not go on in a straight line after striking the surface of the water, but are bent downwards at an angle.
 
Broken pencil
Half fill a glass with concentrated salt solution and top it up with pure water using a spoon. If you hold a pencil at the side of the glass, it seems to be broken into three pieces.
The light rays coming from the immersed pencil are bent at an angle when they emerge from the water into the air at the side of the glass. Because salt solution has a different composition from pure water, the angle of refraction is different. We know that how much light rays are bent when they pass from one substance into another entirely depends on the 'optical density' of the different substance.
 
Cloud of gas
If you pour some bicarbonate of soda and vinegar into a beaker, carbon dioxide is given off. You can normally not see the gas, but if can be made visible: tilt the beaker with its foaming contents in front of a light background in sunlight. You can see the gas, which is heavier than air, flowing from the beaker in dark and light clouds.
Carbon dioxide and air have different optical densities, and so the light rays are bent when they pass through them. The light clouds on the wall are formed where by refraction the propagated light is bent towards it, and the dark clouds are seen where light is bent away.
 
Bewitched pencils
Look through a round jam jar filled with water. If you stand a pencil a foot behind it, its image appears doubled in the jar. If you close your left eye, the right-hand pencil disappears, and if you close your right eye, the other goes.
One sees distant objects reduced in size through a normal magnifying glass. The water container behaves in a similar way, but since it is cylindrical, you can look through it from all directions. In our experiment both eyes view through the jar from a different angle, so that each one sees a smaller image for itself.
 
Secret of 3-D postcards
Draw red and blue vertical lines a short distance apart and lay over them along their length a round, solid, transparent glass rod. You can see both lines through the glass. But if you close one eye the red line disappears, and if you close the other eye the blue line disappears.
Each eye looks from a different angle through the rod and perceives-by the particular angle of light refraction-only one line. The experiment explains how the stereoscopic postcard works: its surface consists of thin, transparent ripples, which behave like our glass rod.
Two photographs, each taken from a different angle, are copied together in very fine vertical strips to give a picture, so that under each individual ripple lies a strip of one and a strip of the other photograph. In the ripples we see, as with our glass rod, only the strip of one photograph with each eye, and the brain finally joins the images to give a 3-D picture.
 
Finger heater
Glue a funnel together with smooth silver paper, as shown in the picture. Stick your finger into it, point it to the midday sun, and you will feel it warm up quite a lot.
The sun's rays are reflected from the walls of the funnel to the middle and are concentrated on the central axis, which is formed by your finger. If you put your finger into the dismantled concave mirror of a bicycle lamp, the son's rays would be unbearably hot. In this case they converge at a point, the focal point of the concave mirror, at which the bulb is usually placed. The heat produced is so great tat one could easily start a fire with a concave mirror. (Grandma is wondering if the heat would enter the hole on the other side and heat the inside of a circle outward this way.)
 
Sun Power-station
The sun's radiation can be caught in a bowl and by means of the heat potatoes can be stewed in their own juice. A 'nourishing' joke and an instructive experiment at the same time. Take a soup bowl or a large salad bowl with as small a base as possible and line it inside with household aluminum foil-bright side outwards. (Grandma thinks of an old electrical night light used for working on cars at night for this.)
Smooth the folds with a rubber ball and a spoon until the foil acts like a mirror. Split it a little at the base of the bowl so as to be able to press in a suction hook, on which you fix a small raw potato. If you point the cooker on a warm day towards the midday sun, the potato becomes hot at once and is cooked after some time.
Now and then you must re-align the bowl towards the sun. The sun's rays falling on the aluminum foil are reflected to the middle and concentrated on the potato. In tropical countries people often use concave mirrors for cooking. Did you know that even electricity can be produced in large poser stations by the son's radiation?
 
Magic glass
If you place a jar over a coin lying on the table, it looks just as if it were in the jar. If you now pour water into the jar and put the lid on it-abracadabra!-the coin has disappeared, as if it had dissolved in the water.
When the jar is empty the light rays from the coin travel into our eyes in the usual way. But if the jar is filled with water, the light rays do not follow this path any more. They are reflected back over the bottom of glass when they hit the water from below at an angle. We call this total reflection, and only a silvery gleam can be seen on the bottom of the jar.
 
View into infinity
Hold a pocket mirror between your eyes so that you can look to both sides into a larger mirror. If you place the mirrors parallel to one another, you will see an unending series of mirrors which stretch into the distance like a glass canal.
Since the glass of the mirror shines with a slightly greenish tint, some light is absorbed at each reflection, so that the image becomes less sharp with increasing distance. Nevertheless the experiment is interesting, because one can make an image of infinity for oneself.
 
Kaleidoscope
You need a highly glazed picture postcard. Cut the edges smooth and divide the writing side along its length into four panels an inch wide. Scratch the lines lightly and bend and stick the card into a triangular tube-shape with the glazed side facing inwards. Both openings are glued up with transparent cellophane. At one end also stick white paper over the cellophane, having previously inserted small snips of coloured cellophane in between, so that they can move easily. A beautiful pattern, which alters on tapping with your finger, appears in the tube.
The tree highly glazed surfaces of the bent picture postcard behave like mirrors and multiply the image of the coloured pieces of cellophane. A polished surface reflects better, the flatter the light rays hit it. But since part of the radiation is absorbed into the surface, the image reflected from it is not so clear and bright as with a mirror.
 
Mirror cabinet
Obtain three sections of mirror each about 3 x 4 inches in size, or cut them your self. Polish them well, and join them with adhesive tape-reflecting surfaces facing inwards- to make a triangular tube. Stick coloured paper outside. If you now look obliquely from above into the mirror prism you will discover a magic world! If you hold a finger in the prism, its image is always multiplied six times in an endless series in all directions. If you place a small flower inside, a meadow of flowers stretches into the distance. And if you move two small figures, innumerable couples dance in an immense hall of mirrors.
 
Shining head
Stick a pin with a polished head into a cork cut in half length ways and fix some celluloid on it to protect your eyes. If you look at the tiny light reflection from the head of the pin under a bright lamp, while holding it right up to the eye, it appears as a plate sized circle of light. A hair stuck onto the moistened celluloid is seen magnified to the width of a finger in the circle of light.
The head of the pin behaves like a small convex mirror. The light which hits it is spread out on reflection, and irradiates a correspondingly large field on the retina of the eye.
 
Light mill
Cut out four pieces of aluminum foil 1 X 1 1/2 inches in size. If you use the silver paper from a cigarette packet, you must remove any backing. Stick the sheets on to a match like the blades of a mill wheel, with the bright sides all facing in the same direction. Blacken the matt sides over a candle, holding a knife blade behind the foil to assist you. Put a drop of glue at one end of the match, draw it out to a hair-fine thread and let it dry. Place a tall jar in the sun, hang the mill inside, and it soon begins to turn without stopping.
We know that dark surfaces are more strongly heated by sunlight than light ones, and such heat difference is the secret of the light mill. The sooty side of the foil absorbs the light rays and is heated about ten times more strongly than the light-reflecting bright side. The difference in the amount of heat radiated from the sides of the blades causes the rotation.
 
The sun's spectrum
Lay a piece of white paper on the window sill and place on it a polished whiskey glass full to the brim with water. Fix a postcard with a finger-wide slit onto the glass, so that a band of sunlight falls onto the surface of the water. A splendid spectrum appears on the paper, and the bands red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet can be easily distinguished.
The experiment is only possible in the morning or evening when the sunlight falls obliquely. It is refracted at the surface of the water and the side of the glass and is separated as well into its coloured components The experiment also works well with light from an electric torch.
 
Spectrum in a feather
Hold a large bird's feather just in front of one eye and look at a burning candle standing a yard away. The flame seems to be multiplied in an X-shaped arrangement, and also shimmers in the spectral colours.
The appearance is produced by the bending of light at the slits. Between the regular arrangement of feather sections (vanes and barbs) are narrow slits with sharp edges. The light is bent on passing through them, that is, it is refracted and separated into the spectral colours. Since you see through several slits at the same time, the flame appears many times.
 
Coloured hoop
You will certainly only have seen a rainbow in the sky as a semi-circle up to now. You can conjure up a complete circle for yourself from sunlight. Stand out-of-doors on a stool in the late afternoon with your back to the sun and spray a fine shower with the water hose. A coloured circle appears in front of you!
The sunlight is reflected in the drops so that each shines with the spectral colours. But the colours of the drops are only visible to your eyes when they fall in a circular zone at a viewing angle of 85° in front of you. Only the shadow of your body briefly breaks the circle.
 
Coloured top
Cut a circle about four inches in diameter from white cardboard and colour it as shown with bright-coloured felt pens. Stick the disk on a halved cotton reel, push a pencil stump through it and allow it to spin. The colours disappear as if by magic, and the disk appears white.
The colours on the disk correspond to the colours of the spectrum of which sunlight is composed. On rotation our eyes perceive the individual colours for a very short time. However, since the eyes are too sluggish to distinguish between the rapidly changing colour impressions, they merge and are transmitted to the brain as white.
 
Summer lightning
Look alternately left and right at the blue of the sky. You will not trust your eyes because it flashes continuously with bright lightning.
What is the explanation for this appearance? If you look at the picture, it is imprinted on the retina of the eye. But red colour impressions remain longer on your retina than blue when you move your gaze. So the impression of the red lightning is overlaid for an instant on the blue of the sky. These two colours together, however, produce an impression of bright light in your brain. Since a new impression of the lightning is formed with each movement of the eye, the process is repeated.
 
Unusual magnification
Make a small hole in a card with a needle. Hold it close to the eye and look through it. If you bring a newspaper very close you will see, to your surprise, the type much larger and clearer.
This phenomenon is caused in the first place by the refraction of light. The light rays passing through the small hole are made to spread out, and so the letters appear larger. The sharpness of the image is caused-as in a camera_by the shuttering effect of the small opening. The part of the light radiation which would make the image blurred is held back.
 
Veined figure
Close your left eye in a dark room and hold a lighted torch close beside the right eye. Now look straight ahead and move the torch slowly to your forehead and back. After some time you will see a large, treelike branched image in front of you.
Very fine blood vessels lie over the retina of the eye, but we do not normally see them. If they are irradiated from the side, they throw shadows on the optic nerves lying below and give the impression of an image apparently floating in front of you.
 
Motes in the eye
Make a hole in a card with a needle and look through it at a burning, low-power electric light bulb. You will see peculiar shapes which float before you like tiny bubbles.
This is no optical illusion! The shapes are tiny cloudings in the eyes, which throw shadows on to the retina. Since these are heavier than the liquid in the eye, they always fall further down after each blink. If you lay your head on one side, the motes struggle towards the angle of the eye, showing that they follow the force of gravity.
 
Ghost in the castle
(This has to be in Grandma's words--If you draw a large castle with a open gate doorway in the middle on one side of a white piece of paper and put a black ghost smaller on the other side. Now stare into the mouth of the ghost for about a minute in bright light. Then look at the castle a minute, a white ghost will appear.)
When you look at the figure, part of the retina is not exposed to light from the black surface. The rest of the optic nerves are dazzled by the bright paper and tire quickly. If you now look at the castle tower, the tired optic nerves do not see the white of the paper in its full brightness, but as a grey surface. The rest, on the other hand, see the white tint of the paper all the more clearly. So an exchange of the black and white surfaces is produced and you see a white ghost in the dark arch of the tower. Only after quite a time, when the nerves have adjusted themselves, does the ghost disappear.
 
Goldfish in the bowl
Stare in bright light for one minute at the eye of the white fish. If you then look at the point in the empty gold fish bowl, there appears to be light green water and a red fish in it after several seconds.
If the eyes have stared for a long time at the left-hand picture, the part of the light-sensitive retina which is irradiated by the red surface tires and the optic nerves concerned become rather insensitive to red. So on looking at the white surface in the right-hand picture, they do not perceive the red radiation which is present in white light. They are only sensitive to the yellow and blue components, which together give green. But the part of the retina which has received the picture of the white fish is now sensitive to the opposite colour to green, namely red. Coloured after-images can be produced with other colours just as well. Each colour changes into the opposite; i.e. blue into yellow, yellow into blue and green into red.
 
Bewitched rabbit
(Grandma has to write this one also because you must have a picture of a magician holding a wand in his left hand facing you drawn on the left side of a black picture with a rabbit on the right.)  Then shut your left eye and stare at the magic rod with your right. If you now slowly alter the distance of the picture--Abracadabra--the rabbit suddenly disappears.
The retina of the eye consists of a large number of light sensitive nerve endings, the so-called rods and cones. These are absent at one point, where they join together at the optic nerve. If the image of the rabbit thrown on the retina falls at this "blind spot" as we move the picture we cannot see it.
 
The disappearing finger
Cover your left eye with your right hand and look straight ahead with your right eye. Raise your left forefinger to your left ear and move it until the tip of the finger is just visible (A). If you now move your eye to look directly at the finger (B) the light rays from the finger go past it.
 
Hole in the hand
 
Roll a piece of writing paper into a tube and look through it with your right eye. Hold your left hand open on the left next to the paper. To your surprise you will discover a hole, which apparently goes through the middle of the palm of your hand. The right eye sees the inside of the tube and the left the open hand. As in normal vision, the impressions which are received by each eye are combined to give a composite image in the brain. It works particularly well because the image from inside the tube, which is transferred to the palm of the hand, is in perspective.
 
Moon rocket
(For this next picture you must have a moon drawn on the left side of the paper with a little star in the middle and a rocket on the right side of the page.) Hold the picture so that the tip of your nose touches the star, and turn it round slowly to the left. The rocket flies into the sky and lands again on the moon. Each eye receives its own image on viewing and both impressions are transmitted to give a composite whole in the brain. If you hold the star to the tip of your nose, your right eye only sees the rocket and the left only the moon. As usual, the halves of the image are combined in the brain. As you turn the picture on its edge, it does not shrink any more because both eyes see the same image by squinting.
 
Ghostly ball
Hold your forefingers so that they are touching about a foot in front of the tip of your nose and look over the fingertips away to the opposite wall. On doing this you will see a curious ball, which is apparently fixed between the fingertips.
When you look over your fingers your eyes are focused sharply on the wall. But the fingers are then projected on the retina in such a way that the images are not combined in your brain. You see the tips of both fingers doubled. These finally combine to give the illusion of a round or oval image.
 
This is for the experiments today. Grandma will give the rest next week.